By Juan R. Rains
Revised May 24, 2015
Pentecost !
[Note: We have learned new information about Pentecost; therefore, we have
revised this article considerably.  At the bottom of this page, we give you a link to
the latest information.  In order to understand Pentecost more completely, you will
want to read that article.]

The Greek word Pentecost means "the fiftieth part of a thing" or “the fiftieth in
order”.  The count to Pentecost has two perspectives: 1) The Day Count and 2)
The Wave Offering Count.  The Offering Count was from morning to morning.  
Moses wrote in Leviticus 23:15 that the count was from the morrow (a reference
to the morning unless further specified) – and Acts 2:15 stipulates that it was the
third hour of the day.  When we put Acts 2:1 with Acts 2:15 we understand that
Pentecost was fully come at 9AM - 49 days from the presentation of the Barley
wave offering of the Heptad of Passover.  This further indicates – by deduction –
that the priests presented the wave offering, in the morning at 9AM.  The day
began at 6AM; so, the third hour of the day was 9AM.

Leviticus 23:15 And ye shall count unto you from the morrow (morning) after the
Sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf (omer) of the wave offering; seven
Sabbaths shall be complete:

LXE Leviticus 23:15 And you shall number to yourselves from the day after
(morrow or morning after) the sabbath, from the day on which you shall offer the
sheaf of the wave–offering, seven full weeks (seven septenaries complete):

Acts 2:1 And when the day (time) of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with
one accord in one place.

Acts 2:15 For these are not drunken, as ye suppose, seeing it is [but] the third hour
of the day (9AM).

Barnes states that Pentecost is a Greek word that can signify the fiftieth in order.  
The day count for Pentecost is 50; however, the offering count from the Barley
Offering at 9AM during the Passover Season to the Wheat Offering at 9AM of
Pentecost is exactly 49 days – Seven Heptads.  [For more details, See The
Heptads of Pentecost].

BARNES

Verse 1. And when the day of Pentecost: The word Pentecost is a Greek word,
signifying the fiftieth part of a thing; or the fiftieth in order.

The word Pentecost appears in only three Scriptures of the New Testament.  The
time for the Wave Offering of Pentecost fully came at 9AM (the third hour of the
day – Acts 2:15) on a Friday of that year, based on the current Gregorian
calendar.  Compare with the calendars at the end of this booklet: anytime the first
holyday of Passover/Unleavened Bread falls on a Thursday – as it did the year the
Messiah died – Pentecost will be 50 days later on a Friday.  

The KJV translation of <day> in Acts 2:1 is incorrect.  The Day of Pentecost was
fully come at sunset the previous evening.  However, as the scriptures clearly
indicate, it was the third hour of the day when Pentecost was fully come – when
the priest offered the wave sheaf, of the Wheat Harvest.  As the count began with
the Barley wave sheaf at 9AM, it was complete only at 9AM 49 days later;
however, because the offering did not occur at sunset, this required 2 days –
nominally – to complete one 24-hour period in the offering count.  The Strong’s
word <2250> can be translated <day> or <time> and here the intent is the time of
the offering of the Pentecost Omer.  In other words, when the time had arrived for
the offering of the Pentecost Omer – it was the fiftieth day, but the 49th morrow
(morning) from the offering of the Barley Wave Sheaf – that God sent His holy
spirit to His disciples.

Acts 2:1 And when the day <time-2250> of Pentecost was fully come, they were
all with one accord in one place.
2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and
it filled all the house where they were sitting.
3 And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each
of them.
4 And they were all filled with the holy spirit, and began to speak with other
tongues, as the spirit gave them utterance.

By further deduction, we can understand that God thundered the Ten
Commandments from Mt. Sinai at 9AM on the 50th day following the first Day of
Passover (Abib/Nisan 15) in Egypt.  From one perspective, the Israelites truly
received their freedom when they submitted to the covenant of God – the Ten
Commandments – a mini-type of the Jubilee (fifty days from Passover to
Pentecost) – when ancient Israel observed a year of freedom (after every forty-
nine years and occurring on the fiftieth year).  We receive our freedom when we
submit to the same covenant, which now includes the giving of the earnest (a down
payment) of the holy spirit – the mind of God – giving us the desire to follow
Christ’s example: living a life of perfection according to the Law of God.

2Corinthians 5:5 Now he that has wrought us for the selfsame thing [is] God, who
also has given unto us the earnest (728) of the spirit.

ONLINE BIBLE: (earnest)
728 arrabwn arrhabon ar-hrab-ohn’

of Hebrew origin Nwbre, 06162; TDNT-1:475,80; n m

AV-earnest 3; 3

1) an earnest
1a) money, which in purchases is given as a pledge or down payment that the full
amount will subsequently be paid

The two other references of Pentecost have to do with the Apostle Paul’s
determination, to observe the holyday of Pentecost.  In Acts 20:16, Paul
determined to be in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost.  In other words, he
determined to be in Jerusalem on the fiftieth day after the Passover Feast (first
holy day of Unleavened Bread) for there was a great celebration on that day.  It
was the Holy Day when the priests waved the Pentecost Omer before God.  
Moreover, for the Apostle Paul, it was the time when God sent His holy spirit, an
amendment to the Old Covenant.  Therefore, for the Christian, Pentecost is doubly
important: #1) the time of the giving of the Ten Commandments, and #2) the time
of the giving of the holy spirit – two parts of the New Covenant God makes
between Himself and those whom He calls to be a part of His family.

Acts 20:16 For Paul had determined to sail by Ephesus, because he would not
spend the time in Asia: for he hasted, if it were possible for him, to be at
Jerusalem the day of Pentecost.

Hebrews 8:10 For this [is] the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel
after those days, says the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them
in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people:

Ezekiel 36:26 A new heart (mind) also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put
within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give
you an heart of flesh.
27 And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and
you shall keep my judgments, and do [them].

In Acts 20:16, Paul determined to pass Ephesus so as not to miss being in
Jerusalem on Pentecost whereas in the following verse he determined to remain at
Ephesus until Pentecost.  Therefore, these two scriptures refer to the Pentecost of
two different years.

1Corinthians 16:8 But I will tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost.  


   PENTECOST IN THE OLD TESTAMENT


In the Old Testament, Moses refers to Pentecost by different names.  #1) Feast of
weeks; #2) Feast of harvest; #3) Day of the firstfruits.  It was a time to
commemorate the beginning of the wheat grain harvest – just as the offering of the
wave sheaf (omer) commemorated the beginning of the barley harvest 49 days
earlier.

Exodus 34:22 And you shall observe the feast of weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat
harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year’s end.

Deuteronomy 16:16 Three times in a year shall all your males appear before the
LORD your God in the place which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavened
bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles: and they shall not
appear before the LORD empty:

Exodus 23:16 And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of your labors, which you
have sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year,
when you have gathered in your labors out of the field.   

Numbers 28:26 Also in the day of the firstfruits, when you bring a new meat
(meal) offering unto the LORD, after your weeks be out, you shall have an holy
convocation; you shall do no servile work:   

The English translations refer to Pentecost as the Feast of Weeks because there
were seven weeks of days from the first day of the count up to but not including the
last day of the count.  However, the Hebrew and Greek refer to the Festival as the
Feast of Heptads/Septenaries because there were seven heptads from the barley
offering to the wheat offering (See: The Heptads of Pentecost).  We will discuss
the Weeks/Sabbaths controversy later.  Pentecost was the Feast of Harvest
because it began the wheat harvest.  The offering of the firstfruits of the barley
harvest began the count to Pentecost, and the offering of the firstfruits of the wheat
harvest, 50 days later, ended the count to Pentecost.  It was the Day or Feast of
Firstfruits because the firstfruits of the wheat harvest was the source of a measure
of wheat – made into two leavened loaves – offered at 9AM of the holy day.  The
priests presented the firstfruits of the barley harvest in the spring on a day that was
not holy.  They cut the barley sheaf at the beginning of the 16th day of the month –
just after the sun had set, ending the holy day of the 15th.  The grains were
prepared into flour, after gathering the harvest, that evening; and its presentation
was about the time of the morning sacrifice the following morning, according to
Edersheim.  Acts 2:15 establishes Edersheim’s statement and gives the third hour
(9AM) as the specific time of the offering of the Pentecost loaves, which mirror
the offering of the Passover omer – time wise; and the third hour also coincides
with the time they put Christ on the tree.  The harvest preparation for the firstfruits
of the wave sheaf – selecting the spot, and tying the standing “sheaves” of barley,
etc. – took place the day before the Holy Day – on the 14th of Nisan.  The priests
worked on the holydays as little as possible.

KJV Mark 15:25 And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.

Leviticus 23:17 states that the two leavened loaves representing the offering of
Pentecost are the firstfruits to the Eternal.  These two loaves represented the
Israelites of ancient Israel – a type of the potential Sons of God – the firstfruits –
the bride of Christ.  Israel was God’s firstborn son:

Exodus 4:22 And you shall say to Pharaoh, Thus says the LORD, Israel [is] my
son, [even] my firstborn:

Leviticus 23:16 Even unto (from) the morrow after the seventh sabbath
(week/heptad) shall you number (calculate the sum of the) fifty days; and ye shall
offer a new meat (meal) offering to the LORD.
17 You shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals:
they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with leaven; they are the firstfruits
to the LORD.

James 1:18 Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be a
kind of firstfruits of his creatures.

Revelation 14:4 These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are
virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goes.  These
were redeemed from among men, [being] the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb.

Revelation 19:7 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honor to him: for the
marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife has made herself ready.

The first morning of the count to Pentecost was when the priest waved before God
the omer of the barley firstfruits – on Nisan 16.  Forty-nine (7x7) mornings later
on Pentecost, Sivan 6 the priests waved the two leavened loaves of the firstfruits
of the wheat harvest.  

The priest presented the product of the barley firstfruits: Fine flour unleavened – a
type of Christ.  He was the firstfruit of the firstfruits.  Reducing the sheaf into
grains and finally into flour turning the firstfruits of barley into one product – a
firstfruit.  Therefore, the first harvest – the barley harvest – represented Christ.

1Corinthians 15:20 But now is Christ risen from the dead, [and] become the
firstfruits (Greek: firstfruit) of them that slept.

1Corinthians 15:23 But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits (Greek:
firstfruit); afterward they that are Christ’s at his coming.

Pentecost – the beginning of the second harvest – represents the bride of Christ.  
On this morning, the priest waved, before God, two leavened loaves.  These
leavened loaves represented the Israelites of the Old Covenant.  Moreover, as the
Israelites – the church in the wilderness – is a type of those in the New Covenant,
the two leavened loaves represents the New Testament Church – the Bride of
Christ, which includes all who will be a part of the first resurrection, from the
genesis of man.  

James 1:18 Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be a
kind of firstfruits of his creatures.

Acts 7:38 This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which
spake to him in the mount Sina, and [with] our fathers: who received the lively
(living) oracles to give unto us:

1Corinthians 10:11 Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and
they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come.

Galatians 6:16 And as many as walk according to this rule, peace [be] on them,
and mercy, and upon the Israel of God.

Revelation 20:6 Blessed and holy [is] he that has part in the first resurrection: on
such the second death has no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ,
and shall reign with him a thousand years.

God used the harvests of Israel to project His plan of salvation for humanity.  The
Feast of Tabernacles in the autumn is at the end of the fall harvest.  Moses referred
to it as the feast of ingathering.  In other words, the Israelites gathered-in the large
fall harvest and then they observed the Feast of Tabernacles.  The fall harvest
represents the conversion of those living during the millennial reign of Christ – the
seventh one-thousand-year day in the plan of God.  Moreover, the eighth day
signifies the White Throne Judgment when the rest of humanity that has died – not
having been invited into the process – will receive an opportunity for salvation.

Exodus 34:22 And you shall observe the feast of weeks (Pentecost) of the
firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year’s end
(Tabernacles).

One tradition of the Jews says that God gave the law on Mt. Sinai on Sivan 6, the
day we refer to as Pentecost.  If this is true, and there is no reason to doubt it, then
God made the covenant with Israel on the day of Pentecost.  The Ten
Commandments are the laws of the covenant between God and man.  This is
where it all begins, after God ransoms one out of the world.  If one does not have
the knowledge of the Ten Commandments, he has no spiritual beginning.  

However, as the New Testament states, the Israelites had no desire to keep the
law of the covenant.  Therefore, God prepared a better covenant for the begotten
Sons of God.  The laws of the Old Covenant were the same for the New Covenant,
but in the New Covenant, God gave the holy spirit furnishing the covenantee with
a desire to keep the Ten Commandments.  (For a better understanding of how this
works, read our book: “The Two Natures in the Heir of Promise”.)

Hebrews 8:10 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel
after those days, says the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them
in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people:

Ezekiel 36:27 And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my
statutes, and you shall keep my judgments, and do [them].

God also amended the covenant on the Day of Pentecost.  The laws were already
in place, but God added the desire (by giving the holy spirit) to keep those laws –
making a better covenant.  The Messiah was the center of the New Covenant rather
than the Temple, and God made the New Covenant to individuals rather than to a
nation.  Of course, the accumulation of God’s people makes up a holy nation, from
one perspective.

1Peter 2:9 But you [are] a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a
peculiar people; that you should show forth the praises of him who has called you
out of darkness into his marvellous light:

Revelation 21:22 And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the
Lamb are the temple of it.

God gave the laws of the covenant, and the holy spirit to motivate us to keep the
laws, with a miraculous display of God’s power and presence.  No doubt exists
about the terms of the covenant in the first Pentecost of the Old Covenant and no
doubt exists about the power to keep the covenant in the first Pentecost of the New
Covenant.

From the first Pentecost of the Old Covenant to the first Pentecost of the New
Covenant, we have progressed in quality only.  We are no further in the plan of
God at the Pentecost of the New Covenant than Israel was at the Pentecost of the
Old Covenant, as far as our personal salvation is concerned.  Of course, God had
advanced His plan of salvation because He had completed the real Sacrifice of
sacrifices.  There were men who were giants for God even before the New
Covenant: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses as just a few examples.  Their
justification looked forward to the time of the sacrifice of the Messiah.  We look
back on that sacrifice.  One major improvement in the New Covenant was the
inclusion of the holy spirit as an integral part of the covenant.  God gave His holy
spirit only to certain people (the saints or elect of Israel), in the Old Covenant,
even though He made all of the Israelites a part of the Marriage Covenant Laws.

Why did the priests offer the firstfruits of the barley harvest on the day after the
first Holy Day of the year?  Recall that Israel was in bondage in Egypt.  Even so,
we were in bondage to the world.  Their freedom came at midnight of the 15th of
Nisan – the Passover!  It was only fitting that they should offer firstfruits to God in
remembrance of their first day of freedom!  They had gone out with a high hand,
rejoicing before God.  Once they entered the promise land, they harvested the
firstfruits of the barley just after sunset of the first Holy Day, at the beginning of
the 16th calendar day of the first month.  Then the priest presented the firstfruits at
the third hour (9AM) on the morning of the 16th Nisan.  The priests harvested the
firstfruits of the barley the moment the Annual Sabbath (15th Nisan) was over
(sunset) and presented it during the morning (morrow) of the same day.  The 16th
was the first day of harvest.  It was fitting that the Israelites should present the
firstfruits of their barley before they began the work of gathering in their fields of
grain.  When they served Pharaoh, he took most, if not all of the harvest.  Giving a
token of the firstfruits to God indicated their allegiance to God rather than to some
man.

Exodus 14:8 And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he
pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an
high hand.  

There were no harvests in the wilderness, so it was only after they came into the
land of Canaan that they were able to offer the firstfruits of their harvests.  All that
happened to them, all that they played out in their lives was for examples to those
of us who are a part of the New Covenant.

1Corinthians 10:11 Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and
they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come.   

On the forty-ninth day from the offering of the barley wave sheaf, God brought the
Israelites into covenant with Him.  This was only possible because of their
freedom effected by the blood of the lamb or goat put on the doorposts to ransom
them from Egypt; and because of their baptism in the Red Sea – typically washing
away their sins.  Had God not rescued them from Egypt, a type of the world, they
would not have been at the foot of the Mount.  Even so, Moses ratified the
covenant with the sprinkling of blood.

Exodus 24:8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said,
Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD has made with you concerning
all these words.

Some become confused, not realizing that the Messiah was most of the sacrifices
of the Old Testament rolled into one sacrifice.  He was our ransom sacrifice
(Passover); He was our sin sacrifice; He was our peace offering and our trespass
offering; and He was our Atonement.  In other words, each sacrifice given to
Israel was but a perspective of the Messiah who was to appear in the “last days”.  
Now, the reality has come.  We have faith in the Messiah who covers most of the
sacrifices of the Old Covenant.  Christ was some of these sacrifices in our stead
and He was some of the other sacrifices as our example.  (For a better
understanding of the Old Testament Sacrifices, read our book: “The Messiah in
the Old Covenant Sacrifices”.)

Some believe that the 49-day period after the Passover is a type of the betrothal
period.  If this is true, it means that in the panorama of time we are still waiting for
the real Pentecost!  In a type, we can play out the betrothal and there can be more
than one type in a Holy Day.  We consider each type on its own merits.  The Old
Covenant was a marriage agreement between God and Israel.  So for them the type
would indicate that they were ransomed by their Lover, "the knight in shining
armor" destroying all the first born of Egypt and carried over the threshold of the
Red Sea and taken to His special Mountain where He married His bride.  For
them, the first Pentecost was the reality.  However, it was only a type for us!  
Their physical reality is a type of our relationship with God.  The forty-nine days
from Passover to Pentecost types our entire lifetime, after God calls us out of the
world.

We are still in the betrothal period and will only realize the marriage when the
Messiah returns to gather His affianced bride – taking her to His Father’s House
where the Marriage Supper of the Lamb will occur.  However, the miracle of the
first Pentecost of the New Covenant was to give us the desire to keep our part of
the covenant, which was lacking with the Israelites in the Old Covenant, in
general.  The fact that God gave the holy spirit on the first Pentecost of the New
Covenant is strong indication that He gave the law at Mt Sinai on the first
Pentecost of the Old Covenant because the law and the holy spirit represent two
distinct parts of the New Covenant.  These two parts work hand-in-glove to bring
about the conclusion of the covenant: Sons of God in the Kingdom of God.

Exodus 34:28 And he was there with the LORD (YAHWEH) forty days and forty
nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water.  And he wrote upon the tables the
words of the covenant, the ten commandments.

The Messiah came and died for our ransom and for our sins.  Each of us has his
own ransom from the world (Passover) and his own forgiveness of sins (baptism
in the Red Sea) and his own personal Pentecost (Betrothal-Covenant with God).  
Seven days after the Messiah went back to the Father, He sent the holy spirit on
the day of Pentecost to make possible the later marriage that will take place, in
heaven, between Him and His bride, after the resurrection and before He returns
to the earth, to set up His Kingdom.  Our betrothal period begins with our personal
Pentecost when God gives us His holy spirit to seal the covenant with us.  

Ephesians 1:13 In whom you also [trusted], after that you heard the word of truth,
the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that you believed, you were
sealed with that holy spirit of promise,

It is possible that our marriage to the Messiah will take place on the Day of
Pentecost in the near future just as it did between God and Israel long ago.  In any
case, Pentecost is a type of both the betrothal and the marriage, for the New
Covenant believer.

Matthew 24:31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and
they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to
the other.

Isaac was a type of the Messiah.  Abraham was a type of the Father.  Abraham
sent his servant to get a bride for Isaac and brought her to Isaac’s dwelling place;
and Isaac and Rebecca became husband and wife in his father’s house.

John 14:2 In my Father’s house are many mansions: if [it were] not [so], I would
have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.

The two witnesses of Revelation come to life in the resurrection – at the last
trumpet – and they ascend to heaven to become a part of the Bride of Christ.

Revelation 11:11 And after three days and an half the spirit of life from God
entered into them (the two witnesses), and they stood upon their feet (a
resurrection); and great fear fell upon them which saw them.
12 And they heard a great voice from heaven saying to them, Come up here. And
they ascended up to heaven in a cloud; and their enemies beheld them.

The importance of Pentecost, for us, is the giving of the covenant.  There are two
parts of the covenant: The law and the ability to keep the law.  God gave the first
part to the Israelites when He brought them into covenant with Himself, at Mount
Sinai.  God gives the second part to us when He brings us into covenant with
Himself, but God gave the Covenant to the Church on the first Pentecost of the
New Testament.  God did not eliminate the first part of the Covenant.  If that were
true, there would be no need for the second part of the Covenant.  There would be
no need to give us the holy spirit if God had eliminated the law!  The holy spirit
gives us the ability to keep the Law of God.

Pentecost signifies to us our betrothal and marriage to God!  We are still at the
foot of the Mountain and God is thundering His laws to us, but He is also sending
His holy spirit so we can keep those laws until the reality of the marriage dawns
upon us.  God is etching our unique spirit with the right principles of living.  When
we shed this fleshly body, we will stand before God a perfect being with a perfect
desire to keep the covenant.  Only then will we have entered into the reality.  Only
then will we be married to God the Messiah.

1John 3:9 Whosoever is born of God (receives the holy spirit) does not commit
sin (as the new man); for His (God’s) seed (the holy spirit) remains in him (the
new man): and he cannot sin (he has the ability to not sin – the new man), because
he is born of God (he has the holy spirit).

1Corinthians 15:42 So also is the resurrection of the dead.  It is sown in
corruption; it is raised in incorruption:
43 It is sown in dishonour; it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness; it is raised
in power:
44 It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body.  There is a natural body,
and there is a spiritual body.

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