The Seven Days of Sabbath
PART FOUR
                                      THE HEPTADS OF “PENTECOST”
                                                                  OR
                                   THE FESTIVAL OF SEVEN HEPTADS

We preface this study with a conclusion that may help the reader find his way, in the
study of this subject.  The Old Testament Hebrew refers to the Feast of “Pentecost”, as
“the Feast of Seven Heptads” and the Old Testament Greek refers to the Feast of
“Pentecost” as
“the Feast of Seven Septenaries”.  This occurs nine times, in various
ways.  The Masoretic Hebrew and the Septuagint Greek agree seven of the nine times
and “disagree” two times.  The Septuagint Greek is consistent in referring to the Feast of
“Pentecost” as the Feast of Septenaries – the Greek term meaning “a period of seven” –
with the same meaning as the Hebrew term “Heptad”.  The Masoretic Hebrew is
inconsistent: It refers to the Feast of Heptads seven times and it uses the term “Sabbaths”
in the count to “Pentecost”, two times, introducing confusion into the bible from the
perspective of counting “Pentecost”.  The proposition is that by the time of the Masoretic
Text – a thousand years later than the Septuagint, the term “Sabbath” had acquired
another meaning other than the Seventh-Day Sabbath, or the days of its anticipation – the
Hebrew Week.  The implication is that the word Sabbath included in its meanings “any
seven day period,” for the Masoretics used it in the two verses in question, as an
acceptable term for a heptad.  We know that the Masoretic Jews kept the Festival of
Seven Heptads as prescribed by the Septuagint rather than by their own bible – if the
meaning of the word “Sabbath” used in these two verses indicates the Seventh-Day
Sabbath or the Seven Days of Sabbath – the Hebrew Week.  Moreover, any count to
“Pentecost” that relies on the Seventh-Day Sabbath, as its 7-day marker, distorts the
seven heptads.  We will follow this pre-conclusion, with details.  One may find the
following chart an aid to study.  It includes the nine mentions – in the Hebrew and the
Greek – of the three terms in reference to the count to “Pentecost”.  Observe that the NKJ
translates Leviticus 23:15 & 16 without consideration for the context – using the term
“Sabbath”.  The translation is literal, from the perspective of the Hebrew word, but not
according to the sense of the subject matter.  The JPS (Jewish Publication Society)
translated – from the same Hebrew Text, as did the NKJ – according to the sense – using
the term “week,” resulting in a consistency that agrees with the uniformity of the English
translation of the Septuagint Greek (LXE).  Therefore, the KJV is more to blame for the
confusion although the perplexity originated with the Masoretic Hebrew Text.

          
 The Nine Old Testament References of the Count to “Pentecost”
                   Using the terms: Heptads, Sabbaths, and Septenaries

Ex. 34:22         Hebrew: A Feast of Seven Heptads;         Greek: The Feast of Septenaries
Lev. 23:15       Hebrew: Seven Sabbaths;                        Greek: Seven Septenaries
Lev. 23:16       Hebrew: The Seventh Sabbath;                Greek: The Last Septenary
Num. 28:26     Hebrew: Seven Heptads;                          Greek: Septenaries
Deut. 16:9       Hebrew: Seven Heptads (twice);               Greek: Seven Septenaries (twice)
Deut. 16:10     Hebrew: A Feast of Seven Heptads;          Greek: The Feast of Septenaries
Deut. 16:16     Hebrew: The Feast of Seven Heptads;      Greek: The Feast of Seven Septenaries
IIChron. 8:13   Hebrew: The Feast of Seven Heptads;      Greek: The Feast of Septenaries

                        Three English Translations of the Nine References

Ex 34:22           NKJ: Feast of Weeks        JPS:  feast of weeks          LXE: feast of weeks
Lev 23:15         NKJ: seven Sabbaths        JPS: seven weeks              LXE: seven full weeks
Lev 23:16         NKJ: seventh Sabbath       JPS  seventh week             LXE: the last week
Nu 28:26          NKJ: [Feast of] Weeks      JPS:  feast of weeks           LXE: weeks        
De 16:9            NKJ: seven weeks (twice)  JPS:  seven weeks (twice)  LXE: seven weeks (twice)
De 16:10          NKJ: Feast of Weeks        JPS:  feast of weeks            LXE: feast of weeks
De 16:16          NKJ: Feast of Weeks        JPS:  feast of weeks            LXE: feast of weeks
IICh 8:13         NKJ: Feast of Weeks         JPS:  feast of weeks            LXE: Feast of Weeks

We should not take lightly that the Jews continue to this day observing the Festival of
Shavuot (“Pentecost”) according to the count as specified in the Septuagint.  They do this
by tradition ignoring the vague wording of the Masoretic Text in Leviticus 23:15-16,
which leads some, outside the Jewish community, to ignore the days between Nisan 15,
and the first Sabbath after it.  In other words, some believe that the “wave offering”
always occurred after the weekly Sabbath following the Annual Sabbath rather than the
Annual Sabbath itself – contrary to the Hebrew Calendar and the instructions of the
bible.  The crucial count (to arrive at the time when Pentecost had fully come) begins
with Abib/Nisan 16 when the priest waved the grain offering of the new barley harvest,
on the morrow after the Annual Sabbath of the Feast of Passover – Abib/Nisan 15.  The
count does not begin with the Seventh Day Sabbath that follows the Barley Wave
Offering.  Moreover, the Barley Wave Offering does not always come after a weekly
Sabbath.

Furthermore, the primary count never begins with the Seventh Day Sabbath
before the
barley wave offering -- which some accept as the correct method in certain years, as a
result of their assumed rules of counting “Pentecost” from the Seventh Day Sabbath --
because, the count to Pentecost, in those years, would fall outside the Heptad of
Passover.  However, one has to take for granted that the word Sabbath means the
Seventh Day Sabbath, in the Hebrew of Leviticus 23:15 & 16, to make the mistake of
counting “Pentecost” from one Seventh Day Sabbath to another because the word
“Sabbath,” in the Hebrew and Greek Lexicons, also has the meaning of “week”.  
Moreover, the meaning of week in English can mean any 7-day period such as: A week
of rain, which may have begun on any day of the calendar week.  Had the translators
used the specific term of Heptad, rather than the vague term of week, they would have
eliminated much confusion.

Our study will illustrate that the Septuagint is more precise than the two vague verses of
the Masoretic Text because the term “septenary” is specific – having only one meaning;
whereas the term “Sabbath” is general – having more than one meaning; therefore, one
must rely on the context to know its meaning – whether to translate week or Sabbath.  
The consensus of the translations is that Leviticus 23:15-16 should use the term “week”
instead of “Sabbath”.  The Septuagint removes any doubt that the weekly Sabbath has
anything to do with the count from the barley harvest offering to the wheat harvest
offering.  It has the Greek term for “septenary,” in every instance, and the English LXE
always translates as “week”.

The bible presents two methods of counting the seven heptads of “Pentecost”.  Each
method begins and ends at a different time; and each count is from a different
perspective.  This study will explore the two modes of counting “Pentecost”.  One thing
is for certain: If one introduces the Seventh Day Sabbath into the count, he discounts the
days between the wave offering and the first Sabbath following the wave offering,
according to the Hebrew Calendar, thereby distorting the connection of Passover to
“Pentecost,” which the seven heptads provide.  

It is well to observe that the Masoretic Text chose “Sabbath” only two times out of the
nine.  Seven of the references have the heptad term.  Therefore, these two instances of
“Sabbath” in Leviticus 23: 15 & 16 have the same meaning as a “heptad” rather than the
Seventh Day Sabbath, from the perspective of the majority of the evidence.  We
conclude this because a heptad can begin on the morning of Nisan 16 regardless of
which day of the week it may be; whereas the Sabbath always falls on the seventh day of
the week, beginning with sunset of The Sixth of the Sabbaths.  In other words, if we
throw the Seventh Day Sabbath into the mix, we cannot find the truth of the count to
“Pentecost” because we have introduced circuitous reasoning creating a conundrum that
is irresolvable and against all the major evidence of the related material.


Now, let us begin a study of each of the nine references of the count to “Pentecost”.

(1)

Exodus 34:22  "And you shall observe the Feast of
Weeks (Hebrew: heptads/ Greek:
septenaries)
, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering
[Tabernacles] at the year’s end.

The Hebrew has,
“you shall observe the Feast of Heptads”: Heptads = “periods of
seven”.  The Hebrew indicates nothing here concerning the weekly Sabbath in reference
to the count to “Pentecost”.  The “Feast of Heptads” is the Feast that has seven periods
of seven units each, from the wave offering of the firstfruits of barley to the wave
offering of the firstfruits of the wheat offering.  The Old Testament refers to “Pentecost”
as the Feast of Firstfruits and the Feast of Harvest
*.  The periods of seven have nothing
to do with the weekly Sabbath; otherwise, the Hebrew here would be “Sabbaths” with
corresponding context to indicate which meaning of “Sabbath” the writer intends.  
However, the Masoretic Text used the term “Heptads”, which has only one meaning: A
period of seven; moreover, the term is unrelated to the seven days of the Hebrew Week.  
In other words, the period of seven can begin with any moment, of any hour of any day of
the week, as we will observe later in the heptads of the birth of a daughter.  The Greek
LXX is
“you shall observe the Feast of “septenaries” or “periods of seven”.  In other
words, the Hebrew and Greek bibles of this verse agree.  

What one does not want to overlook is that the Feast of Firstfruits is the Feast of Seven
Heptads (7-days x 7=49-days) no more and no less.  Therefore, the 50th day presents a
necessary measurement from a perspective as a means to an end – the end being the
wheat-harvest wave offering of the Feast of Heptads.  However, the period of 50 days
has another perspective, which we will explore later in this study.  The Old Testament
never refers to the Feast of Seven Heptads as “Pentecost”.  “Pentecost” is an Idiom,
which includes the 7 heptads of the wave offering within it; however, “Pentecost” is 50
rather than 49.  We will get into the literal understanding of the Idiom of “Pentecost”
further in this study.

*NKJ Exodus 23:16 "and the Feast of [Wheat] Harvest, the firstfruits of your labors
which you have sown in the field; and the Feast of Ingathering [Tabernacles] at the end
of the year, when you have gathered in [the fruit of] your labors from the field.

NKJ Exodus 34:22 "And you shall observe
the Feast of Weeks (of Heptads), of the
firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering [Tabernacles] at the year’s end.

(2)

                                           
The First of the Two Verses
                              Where the Septuagint & Masoretic Text Differ
                            Concerning the Term for the Count to “Pentecost”

LXE Leviticus 23:15 And you shall number to yourselves from the day after (morrow
or morning after)
the sabbath, from the day on which you shall offer the sheaf of the
wave–offering,
seven full weeks (seven septenaries complete):

NKJ Leviticus 23:15 ‘And you shall count for yourselves from the day after (Strong’s
#04283 morrow or morning after) the Sabbath, from the day (Strong’s #03117 day/time)
that you brought the sheaf (an omer, a measure) of the wave offering: seven Sabbaths
[Masoretic Text ambiguous] shall be completed.

RSV Leviticus 23:15 "And you shall count
from the morrow after the Sabbath, from
the day that you brought the sheaf of the wave offering;
seven full weeks shall they be,

JPS Leviticus 23:15 And you shall count to you from the morrow after the day of rest,
from the day (Strong’s #03117 day/time) that you brought the sheaf of the waving;
seven
weeks
shall there be complete;

In Leviticus 23:15, observe that the NKJ chose “seven Sabbaths” whereas, the LXE,
RSV and JPS chose “seven weeks”.  While the Hebrew Term Sabbath has both of these
meanings in the Lexicons, we should keep in mind that other than the NKJ, the translators
chose the word weeks rather than Sabbaths, as the period of seven heptads in Leviticus
23:15.  However, the term week is also an ambiguous term that one could confuse with
the Seven Days of Sabbath – the Hebrew Week or the Seventh Day Sabbath.  Therefore,
the context has to inform the specific meaning of the word week, for us to understand the
intent of the word.  The LXE translated with a non-specific phrase as, “seven full
weeks”.  However, the Greek Septuagint has the specific phrase “seven septenaries”.  

In the Hebrew and the Septuagint, “day after” = “morrow after” or more specifically
“the morning after”.  The first clause is “the morrow after the Sabbath” and the second
clause is “from the
day (time) you brought the wave offering”.  One must let the context
reveal whether to translate the Hebrew term of “day” as “day” or “time” in the second
phrase.  The first word (04283) that the NKJ translated as “day” is specific and means
“morrow after”.  The second word (03117) that the NKJ translated as “day” is general
and can mean day or time, in the Hebrew.  The second clause should eliminate any
confusion as to which Sabbath the scripture references: It was the Sabbath that came on
the day before the barley wave offering; and the priests always waved the barley
offering on the morning after the first Annual Sabbath of the Heptad of Passover: We
will see specific proof of this later.  The first Sabbath of Passover came on Abib/Nisan
15 and the barley offering came the following morning at 9AM of Abib/Nisan 16.

A note of interest: The English JPS translated “seven weeks” rather than “seven
Sabbaths”.  We will probe this perspective more in the next verse.  However, it is
noteworthy that the NKJ chose the worst meaning of the word in Leviticus 23:15 & 16
from the perspective of the context of the count to “Pentecost”.  Considering that the
Hebrew word was vague – in this context – and that the KJV translation is specific – in
the minds of many non-Jewish Sabbath Keepers – the better word under the
circumstance would have been to translate with the more general word, “week” as did
the JPS.

What we do not want to overlook is that
the Old Testament gives two ways of counting
the seven heptads of “Pentecost”
.  In Leviticus 23:15, the count begins “from the
morrow after the Sabbath”: In other words, here the bible specifies the count as from
morning to morning.  Moreover, as we have already discussed, the Hebrew word
translated as “day” also translates as “time”.  The setting of this verse justifies the
contextual-specific term of “time” – it refers to the period when the priest waved the
barley offering.  In other words, the count began at the specific time of the waving of the
barley offering!  For the second method of counting “Pentecost” see Deuteronomy 16:9,
which we will discuss later.

The genitive plural “of the Sabbaths” – the first mention of the Sabbath in Leviticus 23:
15 (NKJ) refers to a specific Sabbath: Therefore, we have the figure: “Heterosis of
Number” (Sabbaths = Sabbath).  The specific information comes in the second clause of
the verse: “from the
day (time) that you brought the wave offering,” which identifies –
for those using the Hebrew Calendar – the first-mentioned Sabbath as the first Annual
Holy Day of the Ecclesiastical Year – the first holyday of the Passover Season.  For, the
priest waved the barley offering on the “morrow” or “morning” after the first Holy Day
of the Heptad of Passover, as we will observe in more detail just ahead.  

We must also add an Ellipsis – “day” to complete the possessive aspect of the genitive
“the day of the Sabbath”.  Otherwise, the translation would be “you shall number to
yourselves from the morning after ... of the Sabbaths” which does not make sense.  The
English translations have made the sense by changing the word “Sabbath” from the
genitive plural to the accusative singular form.  A scripture often loses a nuance of its
meaning when the translators change the form of a word; and this happens often in our
English Bibles.  

The Masoretic Text agrees with the Septuagint in the first and second clauses.  In other
words, the Hebrew and the Greek accounts agree as to the beginning point of the count to
the wheat wave offering.  The count began with Nisan 16, at the point of the barley
firstfruits offering – 9AM of Nisan 16 – the morning after the first Annual Sabbath of the
Heptad of Passover, which occurred on Nisan 15.  However, the count also began with
sunset of Nisan 15 from the day perspective.  Here, we discuss briefly the characteristic
of the count to “Pentecost” in its two perspectives: 1) The Day Perspective (sunset to
sunset), and 2) The Morning Perspective (9AM to 9AM).  One should comprehend that
just as these two modes of counting begin at different points, so they end at different
points.  The Day Count (sunset-to-sunset) is seven heptads to the beginning of the
Holyday of “Pentecost” (sunset of the 49th day).  The Heptad of Offerings is seven
heptads ending at 9AM of the Holyday (9AM of the 49th day) when the priest waved the
wheat offering.  The count has two essential points 1) The Holyday of “Pentecost” and
2) The Wheat Offering on the Day of “Pentecost”.  In other words, The Festival of Seven
Heptads refers specifically to the 49 intervals from 9AM of the Barley Offering to 9AM
of the Wheat Offering.  

Fifty days is not seven heptads; Fifty days is one-day more than seven heptads.  
Therefore, The Festival of Seven Heptads refers to the span of time between the two
wave offerings.  In other words, the day count has two perspectives: 1) The 49 days
bringing us to the Holyday of “Pentecost” and 2) The fiftieth day – the Holyday of
“Pentecost”.  However, the offering count has only one perspective: The 49 “days” from
the Barley Offering to the Wheat Offering.  Therefore, the offering count is the primary
count; as we understand from
Acts 2:1: When the Day of Pentecost had fully come...

It is noteworthy that “Pentecost” is a New Testament term only.  The Old Testament
never refers to the Festival of Seven Heptads as “Pentecost” – neither in the Masoretic
Hebrew, nor in the Septuagint Greek: [Of course, the bible does mention the day beyond
the seventh heptad of days – the fiftieth day, which we will discuss further in this study.]  
Hence, to continue, “Pentecost” is an idiom.  An idiom is a speech form or expression
understood only by those who possess – or can find out – the literal meaning.  The term
“Pentecost” informs us of nothing about the meaning of the Festival.  It is the Festival of
Seven Heptads.  In other words, “Pentecost” had not fully come at the end (sunset) of the
seven heptads of days; rather, “Pentecost” had fully come only at the end of the seven
heptads that ended on the morning of the wheat offering (9AM).  Therefore, the Idiom of
“Pentecost” finds its origin in the Day Count rather than in the Offering Count.  Now,
everyone should know that the priest did not offer the firstfruits of the wheat harvest at
sunset, after seven heptads of days: Any time after that specific sunset is beyond the
seven heptads of the “day count” – that is why we have the term “Pentecost” (the fiftieth
day).  However, the Festival of Firstfruits is a Festival of Seven Heptads – no more and
no less.

The Septuagint and the Masoretic Texts differ in the third clause of Leviticus 23:15
concerning the continuation of the count.  The Hebrew has: “seven Sabbaths” and the
Greek has: “seven septenaries”.  The Septuagint is more specific here, whereas, the
Masoretic Text of “seven Sabbaths” introduces ambiguity.  The Masoretic Hebrew use
of “seven Sabbaths” suggests the idea that the continuation of the count may have
something to do with the “Seventh-Day-Sabbath” rather than “seven periods of seven,”
which are unrelated to the weekly Sabbath.  The Sabbath always begins at sunset of the
sixth day of the week; whereas the “seven periods of seven” for the count to “Pentecost”
may begin on any day of the Hebrew Week: The “Seven Days of Sabbath” – what we
imperfectly compare to the seven days of the English week.  The Septuagint of this verse
specifies seven septenaries – “seven periods of seven”.  This fits perfectly leaving no
jump of uncounted days from the morning after the wave offering of the barley and the
continuation of the count.  The priest offered the wave offering of the wheat harvest at
9AM of the 50th day (sunset-to-sunset calendar-day-perspective) but it was 9AM of the
49th day from the wave offering of the barley harvest.  The count is 50 days because of
the partial days of the two wave offering days (the first on Nisan 16 and the second on
Sivan 6).  The exact time of the count is 7 periods of seven (49 24-hour units) from one
wave offering to the other.  Therefore, the Day of “Pentecost” has fully come only at
9AM of the 50th day: For only then are the Seven Heptads of the wave-offerings
complete.  After all, it is the Festival of Seven Heptads!

The phenomenon comes about because the day-count perspective is from sunset to
sunset, whereas, the offering-count perspective is from morning to morning (9AM to
9AM).  The morning-to-morning perspective requires two parts (one part from one day
and one part from another day) to equal one 24-hour day of the forty-nine days of the
count to the “Pentecost” offering.  This is true throughout the count: From 9AM of Nisan
16, to 9AM of Nisan 17, is one day toward the offering heptad, but two calendar days.  
Therefore, it takes 50 calendar days to equal 49 days or seven heptads of days, from the
wave offering perspective.  In other words, the barley and wheat offering count ends in
the middle of the Day-Count of 50.  This fact introduces the proposition that the term
“Pentecost” is an idiom, which verbally simplifies one’s reference to the two
perspectives of the count to the Festival of Seven Heptads.  The idiom finds its origin in
the Day-Count (sunset-to-sunset) perspective.  As we will see, presently, those who kept
“Pentecost” in the New Testament era understood the two perspectives of the idiom: The
Day versus The Offering.  However, after time, the Idiom has lost its literal meaning:
“The Fiftieth Day that brings us to the Festival Offering of Seven Heptads”.

       
Was the Sabbath of Leviticus 23:15 an Annual or weekly Sabbath?

In the Septuagint, Leviticus 23:11 specifies the Sabbath of verse 15 as “on the morrow
after the first day” when the priest was to wave the barley offering.  This verse refers
back to verses 7-8, which mention the two Annual Sabbaths of the Heptad of Passover –
the only Sabbaths mentioned beginning with verse 4-14: The context which references
only the Heptad of Passover and its barley sheaf offering.  In other words, the context is
about the activities of the Heptad of Passover, not about the weekly Sabbath, which
Moses discussed in verse 3.  Leviticus 23:11 informs us that it was the first day, as
mentioned in verse 7, rather than the seventh and last holyday of the Heptad of Passover
as mentioned in verse 8.  To put it another way, the barley wave offering occurred on the
morning after the Annual Sabbath of Abib/Nisan 15: Specifically at 9AM of Abib/Nisan
16.

LXE Leviticus 23:11 and he shall lift up the sheaf before the Lord, to be accepted for
you.  
On the morrow (morning) of (after) the first day, the priest shall lift it up.

LXE Leviticus 23:7 And
the first day shall be a holy convocation to you: you shall do
no servile work.
8 And you shall offer whole–burnt–offerings to the Lord seven days; and
the seventh
day shall be {1} a holy convocation to you
: you shall do no servile work. {1) Or,
called holy; See Ro 1:7}

It would be easy to overlook the importance of this proof of the correct Sabbath, from
which to begin the count to "Pentecost".  In Leviticus 23, Moses relates all of the Feast
Days of the Ecclesiastical Year.  Moses put down God’s words concerning the Seventh
Day Sabbath in Leviticus 23:3 after the first two introductory verses.  The section
beginning with verses 4-14 are about the Heptad of Passover and verses 15-22 are about
“the Festival of Seven Heptads”.  If one reads verses 4-14 in the Septuagint he will
observe that verse 7 & 11 compliment each other: Verse 7:
“the first day shall be a
holy convocation to you”
and Verse 11: “he shall lift up the sheaf before the Lord, to
be accepted for you. On the morrow of (after) the first day the priest shall lift it
up”
.  “On the morning of the second day” is another way of saying, “On the morrow
after the first day”.  Now as the subject of this paragraph is Passover, we have our
answer – it was on the morning of the second day of the Heptad of Passover when the
priest waved the barley offering.

KJV Leviticus 23:11 And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for
you: on the morrow after the Sabbath the priest shall wave it.

If one wants to argue that the Sabbath of Leviticus 23:15 is a weekly Sabbath, he is
following the example of the Protestants who insist that the Sabbath after Christ’s death
was a weekly Sabbath.  This incorrect thinking has put the Protestants into a dilemma to
explain the three days and three nights of Christ’s body in the tomb.  Anyone who
persists that the Sabbath of Leviticus 23:15 is the weekly Sabbath creates a quandary of
his own.  When the first Holyday of Passover falls on a Sunday, as it does in certain
years, the weekly Sabbath following the Annual Sabbath falls outside the Heptad of
Passover!  In other words, the relevance of Passover and Pentecost to each other
vanishes.  Moreover, if the Sabbath of Leviticus 15 is a weekly Sabbath, then it could be
any Sabbath: In other words, we allow the bible to inform us concerning the Sabbath
before the count begins or we allow man to devise his own rules.  The understanding
that a heptad and the Hebrew Week are distinctly different terms proves that the Heptad
of Passover and the Festival of Seven Heptads have no connection with the weekly
Sabbath.  Moreover, the barley wave offering is a very important aspect of the Heptad of
Passover.  The slain lambs of Passover picture the slain Christ; and the wave offering of
the barley firstfruits pictures the resurrected Christ.  Therefore, the context of the
Septuagint Greek – 1000 years closer to the Ancient Hebrew Text than the Masoretic
Text is – makes clear when the priest was to wave the barley offering.  The interrelated
types of Christ in the Heptad of Passover, and the meaning of a heptad versus the
Hebrew Week proves that the Hebrew Calendar is correct concerning the schedule for
keeping Passover and beginning the count from the morrow after Abib/Nisan 15:
Specifically at 9AM of Abib/Nisan 16.

                          
When the Day of “Pentecost” Had Fully Come

It is most important to observe that the count to the “Pentecost” wave offering did not
begin the evening before at sunset of Nisan 15.  The count to the Holy Day of
“Pentecost” began the evening before at sunset; but the count to the “Pentecost” wave
offering began with the following morning after the first Holy Day of Passover.  This
explains what Acts 2:1 means:
“When the Day of “Pentecost” had fully come”
which Peter specifies as “the third hour of the day” (9AM).  In other words, the count
to “Pentecost” began at 9AM on the morning following the first Holy Day of Passover –
at the time of the waving of the barley wave offering – and it ended at 9AM – 49 days
later when “Pentecost” had fully come at the waving of the wheat offering.  It should not
escape the reader that this was the same time of the morning that the Roman Soldiers put
Yahshua on the tree
*; and it was the same time as the morning sacrifice.  Here we see
that the barley wave offering was a type of Christ, as was the Passover lamb – neither of
which we keep today because Christ has fulfilled the Passover offerings that type Him
**.

Acts 2:1
When the Day of “Pentecost” had fully come, they were all with one accord
in one place.
2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it
filled the whole house where they were sitting.
3 Then there appeared to them divided tongues, as of fire, and one sat upon each of them.
4 And they were all filled with the holy spirit and began to speak with other tongues
(languages), as the spirit gave them utterance.

Acts 2:13 Others mocking said, "They are full of new wine."
14 But Peter, standing up with the eleven, raised his voice and said to them, "Men of
Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and heed my words.
15 "For these are not drunk, as you suppose, since it is only
the third hour of the day.

The second mention of “Sabbath” in Leviticus 23:15 of the Greek, is not the word for
“Sabbath”: It is EB-dom-A-daz and means a Septenary: “a period of seven”.  Therefore,
the text reads, “Seven periods of seven shall be complete”; or as the Greek word for
“complete” is an adjective, the following translation would be more accurate: “Seven
complete septenaries”.  In the Old Testament, a Septenary may refer to seven days, or
seven years.  One finds the word in the Old Testament in 13 verses, 4 forms, and 15 hits;
however, the subject is not always “Pentecost”.  To translate “Septenary” as “Sabbath”
or “week” is an inadequate interpretation – neither of these terms is a specific
translation.  In Leviticus 23:15, we know that the septenary is a period of seven days
because the subject is the count to the wave offering of “Pentecost”.  The Day-Count to
the beginning of the Holyday of “Pentecost” is Seven Septenaries or 49 days.  Seven
periods of seven (seven septenaries) = 49 days and the 50th day, Sivan 6, at 9 AM,
brings us to the end of the seventh septenary from the Barley Offering of Nisan 16.

*Mark 15:25 And it was the third hour (9 AM), and they crucified Him [Yahshua].

**1Corinthians 5:7 Therefore purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump,
since you truly are unleavened.  For indeed
Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us.


                                      
"Pentecost" had fully come at 9AM
                                                                                                 
Acts 2:1
When the Day (appointed time) of “Pentecost” had fully come, they were all
with one accord in one place.
                                                                                                 
Acts 2:13 Others mocking said, "They are full of new wine."
                                                                                                 
Acts 2:15 "For these are not drunk, as you suppose,
since it is [only] the third hour
(9AM) of the day
.                                                                                                


(3)

                                      The Second of the Two Verses
                        Where the Septuagint & Masoretic Text Differ
                     Concerning the Term for the Count to “Pentecost”

LXE Leviticus 23:16 until the morrow after the last week (septenary) you shall number
fifty days, and shall bring a new meat (meal) –offering to the Lord.

NKJ Leviticus 23:16 ‘Count fifty days to the day after
the seventh Sabbath [Masoretic
Text Vague]
; then you shall offer a new grain offering to the LORD.

JPS Leviticus 23:16 even to the morrow after
the seventh week shall you number fifty
days; and you shall present a new meal offering to the LORD.

In Leviticus 23:16, the Greek has “the last septenary” which the LXE translated as “the
last week”.  As we have mentioned before, the term “septenary” has a completely
different meaning to our literal use of the term “week”.  The Masoretic Text has “the
seventh Sabbath” as translated literally by the NKJ, giving the possible impression to
non-Jewish Sabbath Keepers that the day-count of seven heptads ended on the Seventh
Day Sabbath, with the morrow after the Sabbath always being a Sunday – “the day of
Pentecost” or “the fiftieth day”.  The Masoretic Text of Leviticus 23:15-16 is ambiguous
when we compare it with other verses of its text on the subject of “Pentecost”.  The
Septuagint is 1000 years closer to the ancient Hebrew than the Masoretic Text is: And in
this instance, the Septuagint Greek is more exact than the text of the Masoretic Hebrew.  
The Jewish Publication Society’s English version of the Tanakh (JPS) has
“after the
seventh week”
.  In other words, the Jews’ understanding of the word “Sabbath” in
Leviticus 23:16 is “week” rather than the “Seventh Day Sabbath”.  The Jews know how
to count the seven heptads of “Pentecost” (Shavuot); and they count them just as
specified in the Septuagint; however, they know this by tradition (that Shavuot always
comes on Sivan 6, rather than according to the ambiguous wording of the Masoretic Text
– whether translated as Sabbath or Week).  However, to be impartial, the KJV could
have translated the Hebrew word “Sabbath” as “week,” which they did often with the
Greek Hebraism “Sabbath” in the New Testament.  In any case, the last septenary ended
with the sunset of the 49th day, from the 24-hour sunset-to-sunset-day perspective.  
However, the priest waved the wheat offering on the morrow after the 49th day – in
other words on the morning of the 50th day – because the seventh heptad of the offering
count was not complete until 9AM of the 50th day.  The calculation is simple: The
priests waved the barley offering at 9AM of Abib/Nisan 16; therefore, the seven heptads
of the offerings ended 49 days later at 9AM of Sivan 6, which was the 50th day – sunset
to sunset reckoning.

Leviticus 23:16 reveals that the count to “Pentecost” does not end with the seventh
heptad of the Day-Count; but the count continues until the morning of the next day at the
end of the seventh heptad of the Offering Count: When “Pentecost” had fully come.  
Leviticus 23:16 is the only mention, in the Old Testament, of the “fifty days” in
connection with the Festival of Seven Heptads, from which we obtain the word
“Pentecost,” which means “The Fiftieth Day”.

                                           
INTERESTING FACTS

The firstfruits of the Barley Harvest and the firstfruits of the Wheat Harvest always came
on the same day of the Hebrew Week or “Seven Days of Sabbath”

 “Pentecost”: Sivan 6 is always on the same day of the Hebrew “week” as
       Nisan 16 – the morrow (morning after) the first annual Sabbath of
                                   the Heptad of Passover

                                                 Examples:

                 If Nisan 16 is on Monday, Sivan 6 is on Monday
                 If Nisan 16 is on Wednesday, Sivan 6 is on Wednesday
                 If Nisan 16 is on Friday, Sivan 6 is on Friday
                 If Nisan 16 is on Sunday, Sivan 6 is on Sunday

        
These four patterns are the only examples of the count to “Pentecost”

(4)

NKJ Numbers 28:26  ‘Also on the day of the firstfruits, when you bring a new grain
offering to
the LORD (YAHWEH) at your [Feast of] Weeks (Hebrew: in your
heptads)
, you shall have a holy convocation.  You shall do no customary (servile) work.

KJV Numbers 28:26 Also in the day of the firstfruits, when you bring a new meat (meal)
offering to
the LORD (YAHWEH), after your weeks (heptads) [be out], you shall have
a holy convocation; you shall do no servile work:

LXE Numbers 28:26 And on the day of the new corn, when you shall offer a new
sacrifice [at the festival]
of weeks (Greek: of the septenaries) to the Lord, there shall
be to you a holy convocation; you shall do no servile work,

JPS Numbers 28:26 Also in the day of the first-fruits, when you bring a new meal-
offering to the LORD in your
feast of weeks (Hebrew: in your heptads), you shall have
a holy convocation: you shall do no manner of servile work;

The Hebrew has for the English NKJ: “at your [Feast of] Weeks” & KJV: “after your
weeks [be out]: – Hebrew: “in your heptads”; Greek: “of the septenaries”).  The first
part of the verse in Hebrew is “the day of the firstfruits”.  Numbers 28 is a list of the
“feasts of Yahweh”.  The context of Numbers 28:26 is in reference to the feast of the
firstfruits of the wheat harvest – the feast of seven heptads counting from the morning of
the firstfruits of the barley harvest; the feast is what we refer to today as “Pentecost”.  
The fact that the Greek has the genitive: “of the septenaries” reveals the need for an
ellipsis in order to complete the sense.  The NKJ has added an ellipsis: “Feast of” and
the KJV has added an ellipsis: “be out”.  The particle preposition of the Hebrew has
many different nuances and one translates according to the necessity of the context.  
According to the Greek, a good translation would be
“after the completion of your
septenaries”
.  The heptads of the Hebrew and the septenaries of the Greek determine the
feast of the context.  Because the feast of “Pentecost” is the only annual festival counted
in more than one heptad, we have our answer.  The Greek has “of the septenaries”:
Observe again the usage of “heptads” and “septenaries” in reference to the seven
“periods of seven” with the perspective of “Pentecost”.  “Pentecost” was the festival
that came after seven heptads of days or seven septenaries of days.  The bible does not
reference this period as having anything to do with the weekly Sabbath.  
One interesting
observation here is that the Hebrew and Greek agree with Heptads and Septenaries
in reference to the count to the Feast of “Pentecost” or the Feast of Seven
Heptads!
 In other words, in practice and in the Masoretic Hebrew Bible, we have
precedence for referencing the count to “Pentecost” in heptads rather than in Seventh
Day Sabbaths.  The Septuagint is consistent in referencing the count to “Pentecost” in
Septenaries or “periods of seven” rather than Sabbaths.  Observe that when we use the
term “Pentecost” we put it in quotes to note that it is an idiom from the perspective that
“Pentecost” (the fiftieth day) and seven heptads (49 days) are not synonymous.  It should
be of interest to know that the word “Pentecost” appears in the New Testament only (3)
times and does not appear in the Old Testament at all!  In the subject of the count to the
seven heptads of harvest, the Old Testament does mention the 50th day – one time, in
Leviticus 23:16.

One note of further interest is that in this verse, the English JPS used the term “weeks” as
a translation for the Hebrew “heptads” just as it did in reference to “Sabbaths” in
Leviticus 23:15 & 16.  In other words, the context of “Pentecost” demands that we avoid
the translation of “Sabbaths” and use the translation of “weeks” in our count of the seven
heptads.  Of course, even better would be to use the term heptad, which is the more
specific term in the English language for the Hebrew and Greek words, which mean “a
period of seven,” unrelated to the Hebrew Week or the Seventh Day Sabbath.  
Furthermore, had the Masoretic Text been more specific in Leviticus 23:15 & 16, as
was the Septuagint, we would find the subject more easy to comprehend; yet it would
still leave room for argument because of the general rather than specific term of “weeks”.

(5) & (6)

                            
The Second Method of Counting “Pentecost”

Perhaps it would have been better had we inserted this verse earlier to establish the
second method of counting “Pentecost” before we began our discussion of this
perspective.  However, we preferred keeping the order as it appears in the bible.  In
other words, we followed the scriptural order of the verses rather than the logical order,
from the perspective of counting “Pentecost”.  One will need to study this manuscript
from beginning to end several times to assimilate the information.

NKJ Deuteronomy 16:9 "You shall count seven weeks (Hebrew: heptads; Greek:
septenaries) for yourself; begin to count the seven weeks (Hebrew: heptads; Greek:
septenaries) from the time you begin to put the sickle to the grain.  

LXE Deuteronomy 16:9 Seven weeks (septenaries) shall you number to yourself; when
you have begun [to put] the sickle to the corn, you shall begin to number seven weeks
(septenaries).

JPS Deuteronomy 16:9 Seven weeks (heptads) shall you number to you; from the time
the sickle is first put to the standing corn shall you begin to number seven weeks
(heptads).

RSV Deuteronomy 16:9 "You shall count seven weeks; begin to count the seven weeks
from the time you first put the sickle to the standing grain.

The Hebrew is “seven heptads” or “seven periods of seven”.  The Greek is “seven
septenaries” or “seven periods of seven”.  The subject is the count to the “Feast of
Pentecost”.  Observe that the count begins “from the time you begin to put the sickle to
the grain” regardless of which of “The Seven Days of Sabbath” (the Days of the Hebrew
Week) this happened to be.  
The priests gathered the first barley grain just after
sunset of the first holyday of Passover – Abib/Nisan 15.
 Therefore, the count of seven
heptads began at sunset of Nisan 15, which commenced Nisan 16 and ended at the sunset
of Sivan 5, which commenced Sivan 6 – making 7 heptads or 49 days: This is the Day-
Count, which brings us to the Holyday of “Pentecost”.  However, as the wheat offering
came on the morning after the seven heptads of days, one had to count to 9AM of the
morning when
the seven heptads of the offerings were complete.  Therefore, the “Feast
of Pentecost” fell on the 50th day, as specified in Leviticus 23:16 – one day beyond the
seven sunset-to-sunset heptads.

What we do not want to overlook is that the actual count from the morning of Nisan 16 to
the morning of Sivan 6 is also exactly seven periods of seven – seven heptads or
septenaries.  The days are fifty, the periods of seven = 49.  Therefore, we have two
periods of seven: 1) The first period of seven heptads ends with sunset, after 49 days,
having begun with the cutting of the barley firstfruits.  2) The second period of seven
heptads ends at 9AM of the morning after the seven heptads of the Barley offering on
Abib/Nisan 16.  In other words, the true count was from offering to offering and found
its terminus ad quem when “Pentecost” had fully come!  Observe that here again, the
Masoretic and the Septuagint agree that the count for “Pentecost” is in heptads and
septenaries rather than Sabbaths.  Also, note that the JPS is consistent in using the
translation of “weeks” whether the Hebrew is “Sabbaths” or “Heptads”.

Here, we have a Second Method for the count to “Pentecost”.  With this pattern, one
begins the count with sunset when the priest began to cut down the sheaves of barley for
the barley wave offering.  This cutting-of-the-barley-ceremony occurred at sunset of
Abib/Nisan 15.  However, this period of seven septenaries does not bring us to the point
“When “Pentecost” had Fully Come” – for, as Leviticus 23:16 informs us: The count of
the wave sheaf continued until the morning after the seventh septenary to the fiftieth day
when the priest offered the wheat wave offering to God.  In other words, the Day Count
of seven heptads – from sunset to sunset – brings us to the beginning of the Holyday;
whereas, the offering count of seven heptads – from morning to morning – brings us to
the wave-offering on the Holyday of “Pentecost”.  Therefore,
“Pentecost” has fully
come only at 9AM of the morning of the 50th day – using the Offering-to-Offering
Count
.  To put it another way: The wave offering of the wheat occurred exactly seven
heptads after the wave offering of the barley
; therefore, God’s Word emphasizes the
Offering Heptads more than the Day-Count Heptad.  The Wheat Wave Offering was the
essential point of the Holyday of “Pentecost”.  It was the point when the New Testament
Church of God received the holy spirit and began its existence.  In the Barley Harvest
Wave Offering, we have a type of Christ’s resurrection: Yahshua presented to God.  In
the Wheat Harvest Wave Offering, we have a type of the Church reconciled to God,
given His holy spirit, and presented to Him.  Christ’s resurrection has already occurred
and He now sits with the Father in His throne: The goal of His presentation in the barley
offering is now complete.  However, the fulfillment of the wheat wave offering will
complete only at the resurrection of the righteous saints, when in due time, we will sit
with Christ in His throne*.  Therefore, the barley offering represents God’s acceptance
of Christ, which leads to “Pentecost” and the presentation of the wheat offering, which
represents God’s acceptance of the Saints – finalized at the resurrection of the church –
the Bride of the Messiah.  The one offering leads to the other; therefore, The Heptad of
Passover and the Heptads of “Pentecost” represent God’s work of salvation for the first
six thousand years of human existence.  This period of two series of seven heptads
represents the foundation of the God Family; and the remainder of mankind must wait for
their opportunity to become a part of that holy kingdom of spirit beings.  Their future
finds its prophetic expression in the Holy Days of the Seventh Month.

NKJ 2Corinthians 1:22 who also has sealed us and given us the spirit in our hearts as a
guarantee.

NKJ Romans 8:19 For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the
revealing of the sons of God.

*NKJ Revelation 3:21 "To him who overcomes I will grant to sit with Me on My throne,
as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne.

Why did God provide two methods of counting to “Pentecost”?  The sunset-to-sunset
count of seven heptads brings us to the Holyday of “Pentecost”, which begins at sunset of
the 49th day.  However, the offering-to-offering count of seven heptads brings us to the
focal point of the day – the wheat wave offering, which occurs at 9AM of the Holyday.  
In other words, the count to “Pentecost” has two periods of seven heptads: One count
brings us to the Holyday; and the other count brings us to the theme of “Pentecost” – the
time of the wheat wave offering – the presentation of the Bride of Chirst!  Of course, the
holyday continues until sunset of the fiftieth day.

LXE Leviticus 23:16 until the morrow after the last week (septenary) you shall number
fifty days, and shall bring a new meat (meal) –offering to the Lord.

Here, we want to pause and consider “Pentecost” of the New Testament.  One must
accept that the Jews knew how to count Pentecost!  People from every nation under
heaven had traveled into Jerusalem to keep the Holyday in Acts 2:1.  Peter embraced the
same day for the Holyday of Pentecost that the rest of the Jews proclaimed as the day of
the Festival of Seven Heptads.  Therefore, the Jews had to understand, correctly, when
to keep Passover or the count for Pentecost would be incorrect.  In other words, the
argument that the Jews were keeping Passover one day late during the year of Christ’s
death is proven to be in error.  The truth is that many have kept what they thought was the
Passover a day early.

NKJ Acts 2:1 When the Day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all with one accord
in one place.

NKJ Acts 2:5 And there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every
nation under heaven.

Later, Paul kept the same Pentecost as his kinsmen.  Paul was a Pharisee and observed
the law according to the Pharisee’s understanding of it.

NKJ Acts 20:16 For Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus, so that he would not have to
spend time in Asia; for he (Paul) was hurrying to be at Jerusalem, if possible, on the Day
of Pentecost.

Philippians 3:5 [The Apostle Paul]: Circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel,
[of] the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee;

(7)

NKJ Deuteronomy 16:10  "Then you shall keep the Feast of Weeks (Hebrew: heptads;
Greek: septenaries) to the LORD (YAHWEH) your God with the tribute of a freewill
offering from your hand, which you shall give as the LORD (YAHWEH) your God
blesses you.

LXE Deuteronomy 16:10 And you shall keep the feast of weeks (septenaries) to the Lord
your God, accordingly as your hand has power in as many things as the Lord your God
shall give you.

JPS Deuteronomy 16:10 And you shall keep the feast of weeks (heptads) to the LORD
your God after the measure of the freewill-offering of your hand, which you shall give,
according as the LORD your God blesses you.

The Hebrew is “you shall keep the Festival of heptads” or “the Festival of the periods of
seven”.  The Greek “you shall keep the feast of septenaries” or “the feast of the periods
of seven”.  Here again, the heptads and septenaries have to do with the count to
“Pentecost”.  The subject matter has nothing to do with the weekly Sabbath.  Here also,
the Masoretic Text agrees with the Greek Septuagint that the count to “Pentecost” is in
Heptads/Septenaries rather than in Sabbaths.  The NKJ, LXE, and JPS all agree with a
translation of “weeks”.

(8)

NKJ Deuteronomy 16:16  "Three times a year all your males shall appear before the
LORD (YAHWEH) your God in the place which He chooses: at the Feast of Unleavened
Bread, at the Feast of Weeks (Hebrew: heptads), and at the Feast of Tabernacles; and
they shall not appear before the LORD (YAHWEH) empty–handed.

LXE Deuteronomy 16:16 Three times in the year shall all your males appear before the
Lord your God in the place, which the Lord shall choose in the feast of unleavened
bread, and in the feast of weeks (septenaries), and in the feast of tabernacles: you shall
not appear before the Lord your God empty.

JPS Deuteronomy 16:16 Three times in a year shall all your males appear before the
LORD your God in the place which He shall choose; on the feast of unleavened bread,
and on the feast of weeks (heptads), and on the feast of tabernacles; and they shall not
appear before the LORD empty;

The Hebrew has “in the festival of the heptads” for the NKJ: “at the Feast of Weeks”.  
The Greek has “in the feast of the septenaries” for the LXE: “in the Feast of Weeks”.  
Here again the Masoretic Hebrew and Septuagint Greek agree with heptads and
septenaries; and they use these terms in the plural “the periods of seven”.  The verse
does not include any comment concerning the weekly Sabbath.  The NKJ, LXE, and JPS
all agree with the translation of “the feast of weeks”.

(9)

NKJ 2Chronicles 8:13 according to the daily rate, offering according to the
commandment of Moses, for (on) the Sabbaths, the New Moons, and the three appointed
yearly feasts––the Feast of Unleavened Bread,
the Feast of Weeks (Hebrew: heptads),
and the Feast of Tabernacles.

LXE 2Chronicles 8:13 according to the daily rate, to offer up [sacrifices] according to
the commandments of Moses, on the sabbaths, and {1} at the new moons, and at the
feasts, three times in the year, at the feast of unleavened bread, and at
the feast of weeks
(Greek: septenaries)
, and at the feast of tabernacles. {1) Gr. at the months}

JPS 2Chronicles 8:13 even as the duty of every day required, offering according to the
commandment of Moses, on the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the appointed
seasons, three times in the year, even in the feast of unleavened bread, and in
the feast
of weeks (Hebrew: heptads)
, and in the feast of tabernacles.

The Hebrew has “the festival of heptads” or “the festival of the periods of seven”.  The
Greek has “in the feast of the septenaries” or “in the feast of the periods of seven”.  Here
again, neither the Greek nor the Hebrew mentions the weekly Sabbath as a part of the
method of count to “Pentecost”.  The Greek and Hebrew agree to Septenaries and
Heptads in reference to the Feast of “Pentecost” – no reference to the Seventh Day
Sabbath.  The NKJ, LXE, and JPS are consistent with “the feast of weeks”.

YLT 2Chronicles 8:13 even by the matter of a day in its day, to cause to ascend
according to the command of Moses, on sabbaths, and on new moons, and on appointed
seasons, three times in a year—in the feast of unleavened things, and in the feast of
weeks (Heptads/Septenaries), and in the feast of booths.

The NKJ has “for the Sabbaths”; however, the burnt-offerings were not “for” the
Sabbath.  The burnt offerings were for the people – indicating God’s relationship with
them.  Here we have Dative Plural in the Greek and should translate literally: “on the
Sabbaths” (See YLT, LXE, and JPS above).


                                        WHY COUNT PENTECOST?

We have concluded our analysis of the nine verses of the Festival of Seven Heptads.  
However, we should consider: Why the count.  Why count the days, if one knows where
it will end before he begins the count?  We should consider that while those coming after
the establishment of the calendar would know the terminus ad quem, this would not have
been the case in the beginning.  The instructions for the count as given in the bible was
for those in authority whose responsibility included instructing the people when to keep
the “Festival of Seven Heptads”.  In other words, God instructed those in authority to
calculate the correct day for “Pentecost” and pass it on to the people.  Eventually this
developed into an established calendar.

However, within these instructions and the meanings of the two Festivals lies a less
obvious reason for the count: In the Heptad of Passover, Christ, the potential Husband
prepares Himself as a Groom for a Bride; and in the Festival of Seven Heptads, the
Church prepares Herself as the potential Bride.  The periods of seven heptads denote “in
the perfection of time”.  Therefore, while we observe the Festival of the Wheat Harvest
it merely denotes what is yet to come – the point when the wedding of the Husband and
His Bride has no further impediment.  It is also interesting to consider the Seven
Churches of Revelation – one church for each heptad in the count to “Pentecost”.  In
these Seven Churches, we see seven different characteristics of the Bride of Christ
presenting a full (perfect) picture of the bride, in its human and therefore imperfect
form.  One could assign these seven facets to the Bride from Adam until the Resurrection
of the Righteous Saints or he could assign them to the New Testament portion of the
Church.  Each perspective would comprise a study in itself.  However, the Saints of the
Old Testament were as much a part of the Bride of Christ as those of the New Testament
Period because they all have one thing in common – the mind of God, making them the
“daughters of God,” from the perspective of the Bride of Christ.

Recall that Israel arrived at the Mountain of God and soon after, Yahweh spoke to them
the Ten Commandments – the Covenant of God – the potential Husband looking for a
Bride.  The Covenant specified the terms of the Husband/Wife agreement.  The Jews
have always believed that this took place on Sivan 6 – the Holyday we call
“Pentecost”.  Moreover, the evidence of the bible supports this understanding.  The
covenant of the Old Testament did not work because the articles of the covenant did not
specify a means of insuring that the “wife” would have the ability to keep her part of the
covenant – no doubt this was intentional: God did not err in the first covenant.  God
resolved that detail in the New Testament by giving those of the New Covenant of His
holy spirit.  However, as Paul specified, the Husband of the New Covenant now
requires His potential Bride to keep the covenant in the spirit of its intent rather than just
in the letter.  Therefore, on the “Day of Pentecost” – when it had fully come – God gave
the Church the missing part of the Old Testament Covenant – the holy spirit.  Within
these parameters lies the proposition that God gave the first covenant to Israel on the
“Day of Pentecost,” soon after the Israelites arrived at Mount Sinai.

In other words, in the Festival of Seven Heptads we have The Covenant of a Husband
and His Bride and the giving of the means whereby She can live up to the Covenant.  
Only one “Pentecost” exists after the first resurrection and before the marriage of Christ
and the Church.  Soon after the marriage, the Bride follows Christ on white horses to
assist Him in the battle of Armageddon.  The proposition is that the Marriage Supper of
the Lamb and His Bride occurs on the Festival of Seven Heptads while the Church is in
heaven, for a one-year period during the Day of the Lord taking place on the earth.

Revelation 19:7 "Let us be glad and rejoice and give Him glory, for
the marriage of the
Lamb has come, and His wife has made herself ready
."
8 And to
her (the bride) it was granted to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for
the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints.

Revelation 19:14 And
the armies (the saints - the bride) in heaven, clothed in fine
linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses.

In other words, we count from the moment when the Father accepts Christ as His
resurrected Son (the Barley Offering) until the moment when Christ accepts the Church
as His resurrected Bride (the Wheat Offering).  Therefore, the count is one of
anticipation, as the Groom and Bride count off the days until the wife has made herself
ready for the marriage.  After this point, the Church passes into eternity and the marriage
is a sure thing.  Therefore, the resurrection is the terminus ad quem of the Festival of
Seven Heptads.  The Groom and Bride are cautious – they count the days off by two
methods in order to make sure they do not fail to make the rendezvous – the preplanned
time and place when they find the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow – when the Bride
skips the bonds of the earth into “and they lived happily ever after”.      

From the resurrection of the righteous – when Christ takes His betrothed Wife to His
Father’s House in heaven – until the return of Christ with His Bride is a period of one
year – the period coincides with the Day of the Lord on the earth.  The proposition of the
Festival of “Pentecost” is that the wedding will take place in heaven on the “Day of
Pentecost”.  Only then will the Festival of Seven Heptads be complete.

              
Why the Churches have erred in the Count to “Pentecost”

The Churches have erred in the Count to “Pentecost” for at least 3 reasons: 1) The
Churches have erred because they have not differentiated between the “day count of
seven heptads (= 49 days: sunset-to-sunset)” and the “wave-offering count of seven
heptads (= 49 days: morning-to-morning)”.  2) The Churches have erred because the
Masoretic Text, which the KJV translators used for their Old Testament translations, has
the vague term “Sabbaths” – twice – instead of the more specific term for “heptads,”
which it does have for seven of the nine mentions of the count to “Pentecost”.  
Moreover, the term “Sabbaths” is not synonymous with “heptads” – but it does have the
meaning of “week,” a closer but still non-specific term for the 49-day count.  The
Masoretic term of Sabbath cannot mean the Seventh Day Sabbath because the heptad
count was to begin on the morrow of Nisan 16 regardless of which day that fell during
the Seven Days of Sabbath: “Any day of the week”.  Moreover, seven heptads is 49
(7x7= 49) no more and no less.  It cannot mean the recurring cycle of the Seven Days of
Sabbath or “the Hebrew week,” for that is contrary to the nature of a heptad.  Therefore,
the Masoretic term of Sabbath is vague – a creation of the Masoretic Jews 1000 years
after the Jewish Scribes translated the Ancient Hebrew into the Greek Septuagint, which
always uses the term “septenary” from the perspective of counting “Pentecost.”  3) The
Churches have erred because of the English translation of “weeks” rather than
“heptads,” which has confused its readers since, literally, the two words are not
synonymous.  A week is a continuous seven-day cycle, whereas, a heptad may begin on
any day of a week and on any minute or hour of the day.  However, the English word
“week” also may have the nuance of any period of seven days, idiomatically: Example:
“A week of rain:” Seven days of rainfall, beginning on any day of the calendar week.  In
that sense, the word week has the nuance of a heptad.  Moreover, a heptad may occur
once each year, as in the case of the one “Heptad of Passover” – a seven-day feast, as
well as in the case of the seven heptads of “Pentecost”.  The Heptad of Passover is
bound by a Holyday on the first and seventh days; and, the Seven Heptads of “Pentecost”
are bound by the barley wave offering at its beginning and the wheat wave offering at its
end.  Moreover, from the day-count perspective, sunset that ends the first holyday of
Passover and the sunset that begins the Holyday of Pentecost bind the Seven Heptads of
“Pentecost” together – they each reflect the starting point of the days of the two wave
sheaf offerings.  The seven heptads reflect the growth of the wheat harvest that
represents the firstfruits of the Church of God from Yahweh’s creation of humans until
the first resurrection of the righteous – the Bride of Christ.  The seven churches of
Revelation type the Church in its many different human facets.  

A heptad may be seven days or seven years, in length.  We will consider the Land Rest
Heptad and the Jubilee Heptad further in this study.  The Land Heptad occurred every
seventh year; and the Jubilee occurred at the end of 49 years.  In other words, the Land
Rest occurred one year in seven and the Jubilee occurred one year in fifty years.  
Moreover, these two heptad periods began on the Day of Atonement – the 10th day of the
seventh month.  The point is that the heptad does not follow the weekly cycle; therefore,
to translate as “the feast of seven weeks” is misleading because it is an idiom rather than
a literal phrase.  “Pentecost” is the Feast of Seven Heptads of days; and it is the Feast of
Seven Heptads from the morning barley offering to the morning wheat offering.  

One cannot accurately understand the count to “Pentecost” unless he understands the term
“heptad” and the two perspectives of the count.  Moreover, one cannot accurately count
“Pentecost” unless he understands that a heptad and the Hebrew Week are unrelated in
meaning.  In other words, had both words had the same meaning one could eliminate one
of the words from the language.  One comprehends from the Hebrew Lexicon definitions
that a translator must translate the Hebrew word for “Sabbath” according to the context,
as “Sabbath” or “week”.  On the other hand, the Hebrew word for “Heptad” is a period
of seven – more specific than the word “Sabbath”.  The only thing we have to find out
about a heptad is whether it is in days or years.

Sabbath: Hebrew: 1) The Seventh Day Sabbath, and 2) A span of seven days (week).
Heptad: Hebrew: A period of seven (days or years).

The translation of Sabbath, Heptad, or Septenary as “week” is an ambiguous translation
that may lead the English reader to a wrong conclusion.  It introduces an avoidable
vagueness into the scriptures.  Moreover, the translation of “Sabbath” in Leviticus 23:
15, and 16 is a double error because the translators did a literal translation rather than
translating according to the context of the subject matter at hand.

                                  
A VAGUE HEPTAD PASSAGE

NKJ Jeremiah 5:24 They do not say in their heart, "Let us now fear the LORD
(Yahweh)
our God (Elohiym), Who gives rain, both the former [rain for the barley?],
and the latter [rain for the early wheat?], in its season.  
He reserves for us the
appointed weeks (Hebrew: heptads [the seven heptads of “Pentecost”?]
; Greek: the
season of the fulfillment of the ordinance) of the harvest."

LXE Jeremiah 5:24 and they have not said in their heart, Let us fear now the Lord our
God, who gives us the early and latter rain, according to the season of the fulfillment of
the ordinance of harvest, and has preserved [it] for us.

JPS Jeremiah 5:24 Neither say they in their heart: ‘Let us now fear the LORD our God,
that gives the former rain, and the latter in due season;
that keeps for us the appointed
weeks (heptads) of the harvest
.’

The Hebrew and the Greek languages differ with this verse.  Where the NKJ translates
from the Masoretic Text: “the appointed weeks (heptads)” the Septuagint English
translation has “the season of the fulfillment of the ordinance”.  These phrases are surely
in reference to the “festival of seven heptads” or the Feast of “Pentecost”.  We know that
“Pentecost” was the festival of seven heptads: “Pentecost” is the only annual festival
that the bible refers to with the language of multiple heptads.  In any case, neither the
Hebrew nor the Greek mentions the weekly Sabbath, in connection with the harvest
festival, of this verse.  Passover centers on the Messiah and “Pentecost” centers on the
Bride of Christ.  Prophetically, from the perspective of time, Passover begins with the
death of Christ and Pentecost ends with the Resurrection of the Saints.  
The Marriage
Supper of the Lamb occurs just before Christ and the Saints return to the earth
--
(The Period from “Pentecost” to Trumpets) --
for the battle of Armageddon, after
which Christ begins His reign on the earth for a thousand years.

We know that “Pentecost” came at the beginning of the early wheat harvest; however, it
was at the end of the harvest-to-harvest spring season, having begun with the barley
harvest of firstfruits and its wave offering; therefore, “Pentecost” is the fulfillment or
completion of the focus begun at the Passover festival, which pictures God taking a
people for Himself*.

*Deuteronomy 7:6 "For you [are] a holy people to
the LORD your God (YAHWEH
your Elohiym)
; the LORD your God (YAHWEH your Elohiym) has chosen you to be a
people for Himself, a special treasure above all the peoples on the face of the earth.

Israel was God’s son even before the Exodus, because they were the descendants of
Abraham.

Exodus 4:22  "Then you shall say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says
the LORD (YAHWEH):
"Israel is My son, My firstborn.
23  "So I say to you, let My son go that he may serve Me. But if you refuse to let him go,
indeed I will kill your son, your firstborn."’"

However, the Israelites became God’s special people, from a different perspective,
after they came through the baptism of the Red Sea on the last Holyday of the Heptad of
Passover.  Yahweh was bringing them into a more intimate relationship with Himself,
from that point forward.  Before their baptism, God had called them out of Egypt (a type
of the world from our perspective) and made a way of escape for them, at midnight of
Abib/Nisan 15: They began to leave Egypt when daylight came on the morning of
Abib/Nisan 15.  They left Egypt behind when daylight came on the morning of Nisan 21.  

Christ’s sacrifice, from the perspective of the midnight Passover is our Way of Escape
from the world of Satan’s making.  However, Christ’s sacrifice does not end with
breaking Satan’s initial power over us.  Pharaoh is a type of Satan; he continued to
pursue the Israelites beyond Abib/Nisan 15 – his ultimate hold over them came at the
Red Sea.  Christ’s sacrifice was of supreme importance in washing away the sins of His
People on the final day of Passover: In other words, Christ’s Passover continued through
their Red Sea baptism*.  

*NKJ 1Corinthians 10:1 Moreover, brethren, I do not want you to be unaware that all
our fathers were under the cloud, all passed through the sea, 2
all were baptized into
(unto)
Moses in the cloud and in the sea,

Now, we know that Ancient Israel was but a type of the Household of Faith.  Moreover,
“Pentecost” brings us to the New Covenant, which demands the inclusion of the holy
spirit because we are the People of God in reality rather than in type, which Israel was.  
Therefore, when the time of “Pentecost” had fully come, God sent His holy spirit and
began the New Covenant Church of God at the very moment of the wheat wave offering,
at the end of the seven (the number of perfection) heptads from the barley wave offering
of Passover.  Christ has finished His mission of becoming the first of the firstfruits – the
first begotten Son of God.  Christ’s resurrection has occurred already*.   Our
resurrection is yet to occur.  Once that happens, our “Pentecost” will be complete.

*1Peter 1:3 Blessed [be] the God and Father of
our Lord Jesus Christ (Adonay,
Yahshua, Mashiach)
, who according to His abundant mercy has begotten us again to a
living hope through the resurrection of
Jesus Christ (Yahshua, Mashiach) from the
dead,

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