“The First of the Sabbaths”

NKJ Psalms 24:1 A Psalm of David.  The earth [is] the LORD’S, and all its
fullness, The world and those who dwell therein.

LXE Psalms 24:1 (23:1) A Psalm for (of) David on (for)
the first [day] of the
week
(the first of the Sabbaths).  The earth is the Lord’s and the fullness
thereof, the world, and all that dwell in it.

The phrase “A Psalm of David” in the Greek is “A Psalm the David”.  The LXE
translates this exact phrase 35 times; and this is the only time that it translates it
as “A Psalm for David”.  In all the other 34 verses, the LXE translates as “A
Psalm of David”.  David, and the definite article before his name in the Greek, is
in the Dative, Masculine, and Singular.  Here, the Dative indicates the agent who
performs the action.  The English Language does not commonly use a definite
article before a proper name.  Therefore, the translation is “A Psalm of David”
which gives us the information that David wrote the Psalm.

                   
Idiom: “The First of the Sabbaths”
      Literal: “The First Day of the Seven Days of Sabbath”

In Psalm 24:1, the Greek = “of the first, of [the] Sabbaths” – One should note that
the LXE has supplied “day” as an ellipsis because of the absence of an object for
the prepositional phrase: “of the first” – in other words, “The first of what?”  
The LXE has supplied the ellipsis as “day” for the first Genitive phrase “of the
first [day]”.  However, the LXE has erroneously chosen “on” for the beginning
preposition of this phrase, as though the Greek was in the Dative rather than the
Genitive Case.  The context requires here that one translate the genitive phrase
“of the first” as “for the first” because we have here a “Genitive of Relation,”
rather than possession.  The figure, Ellipsis, is a figure because the author used
an idiom that left out a word necessary to make the phrase or sentence complete
(grammatically and logically) when translating into English.  The use of an idiom
is just one reason we find “incomplete” sentences in our English Translations.  In
the culture of the time, the meaning of an idiom had sense without the connecting
words, but in another language, time, and culture one needs to supply the ellipsis
for the immediate grasp of the subject at hand.  A study of “the Seven Days of
Sabbath” indicates that the LXE was correct in supplying “day” for the omitted
word.  We should note further that we have two Genitive Phrases in the Greek:
“of the first, of the Sabbaths”.  However, the idiomatic phrase of the Hebrew is
“The First of the Sabbaths” and its literal meaning is “The First Day of the Seven
Days of Sabbath”.  The beginning propositional phrase of this idiom varies
according to context and here the context requires “for”.  In other words, David
created a Song for: “The First Day of the Seven Days of Sabbath”.  The Sabbath
has seven parts – here, we have the first part: What we call the first day of the
Hebrew Week; what the Hebrews idiomatically referred to as, “The first of the
Sabbaths”.



[THE SECOND DAY OF SABBATH]:
(Song: Mt. Zion Stands Most Beautiful
By Dwight Armstrong)


                     Idiom: “The Second of the Sabbaths”
      Literal: “The Second Day of the Seven Days of Sabbath”

NKJ Psalms 48:1 A Song.  A Psalm of the sons of Korah.  Great [is] the LORD,
and greatly to be praised In the city of our God, [In] His holy mountain.

LXE Psalms 48:1 (47:1) A Psalm of {1} praise for the sons of Core on
the
second [day] of the week
(the second of the Sabbaths).  Great is the Lord, and
greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in his holy mountain. {1) A song}

In Psalm 48:1, the word “Sabbath” does not appear in the NKJ because the
translators followed the Masoretic Text, which does not include this aspect of
the verse.  Greek: Genitive Singular: “of the Sabbath”.  Phrase: “on the second
of the Sabbath” – the adjective “second” is singular, LXE supplied the word
“day” for the ellipsis, and kept the word for “Sabbath” in the singular.  In the
previous verse, we had two Genitive phrases “of the first, of the Sabbaths”.  
Here we have a Dative Phrase and a Genitive Phrase “on the second, of the
Sabbath”.  We can further note that the LXE correctly translated the first mention
as Dative, and the second mention as Genitive, in this verse.  The literal phrase
would be “On the second day of the seven days of Sabbath” for the idiomatic
expression “On the second of the Sabbath”.  Here we have another variety of the
same idiom: “On the Second of the Sabbaths” where the writer puts the singular
for the plural: Figure, Heterosis of Number [Sabbath = Sabbaths].  Note that this
figure became necessary because of the singular number of the ellipsis “day”.  
This is a peculiarity of inflectional languages such as the Greek and Hebrew.


[THE THIRD DAY OF SABBATH]:
(Song: Rise and Judge, Eternal One!
First two verses
By Dwight Armstrong)


                     Idiom: “The Third of the Sabbaths”
     Literal: “The Third Day of the Seven Days of Sabbath”

LXE Psalms 82:1 (81:1) A Psalm for Asaph.  God stands in the assembly of
gods: And in the midst [of them] will judge gods.

Our knowledge of the Third Day of Sabbath comes from the Rabbis.  The
Septuagint does not specify any Psalm for the Third Day of Sabbath.  In
fact, the word “third” does not appear in the book of Psalms in the Hebrew
or the Greek.  However, the fact that the Septuagint supplies a song for
most of the other days of the week – all except the third and fifth days –
indicates that songs for those days also existed (See Note from Spurgeon
Treasury* under Psalms 24).

                                 
Spurgeon Treasury
                                         Psalm 24

*We learn from the rabbins, that this was one of certain Psalms, which were
sung in the performance of Jewish worship on each day in the week: —

The 24th Psalm on the 1st, the Lord’s day, our Sunday.
      48th      ditto         2nd  ditto
      82nd     ditto         3rd   ditto
      94th      ditto         4th   ditto
      81st      ditto         5th   ditto
      93rd     ditto          6th   ditto
      92nd     ditto         7th,  the Jewish Sabbath.


[THE FOURTH DAY OF SABBATH]:
(Song:


                  Idiom: “The Fourth of the Sabbaths”
    Literal: “The Fourth Day of the Seven Days of Sabbath”

LXE Psalms 94:1 (93:1) A Psalm of David for
the fourth [day] of the week
(the fourth of the Sabbaths).  The Lord is a God of {1} vengeance; the God
of {1} vengeance has declared himself.  {1) Gr. plural}

In Psalm 94:1, the Greek is: “on the fourth of the Sabbaths” – the adjective
is singular, the LXE supplied the ellipsis “day” and the word “Sabbaths” is
Genitive Plural: “of the Sabbaths”.  The word “fourth” is Dative Singular.  
Therefore, we have “on the fourth of the Sabbaths”.  Literally, this phrase
would be: “On the fourth day of the seven days of Sabbath”.  The implied
ellipsis is "to be sung" - in other words, "A Psalm of David [to be sung] on
the fourth of the Sabbaths".  The translators chose "for" in place of "on" to
solve the semantical problem.

[THE FIFTH DAY OF SABBATH]:
(Song: Praise The Eternal With A Psalm!  By
Dwight Armstrong)


                  Idiom: “The Fifth of the Sabbaths”
   Literal: “The Fifth Day of the Seven Days of Sabbath”

LXE Psalms 81:1 (80:1) For the end, a Psalm for {1} Asaph, concerning the
wine–presses.  Rejoice you in God our helper; shout aloud to the God of
Jacob. {1) Alex: David}

Our knowledge of the Fifth Day of Sabbath comes from the Rabbis.  The
LXX does not specify any Psalm for the fifth day of Sabbath.  However, the
fact that the Septuagint supplies a song for all the days of the week, except
the third and fifth days, indicates that they did exist (See Spurgeon Treasury
under Psalms 24).


[THE SIXTH DAY OF SABBATH]:
(Song:


                 
                
Idiom: “The Sixth of the Sabbaths”
  Literal: “The Sixth Day of the Seven Days of Sabbath”

NKJ Psalms 93:1 The LORD reigns, He is clothed with majesty; The LORD
is clothed, He has girded Himself with strength.  Surely, the world is
established, so that it cannot be moved.

LXE Psalms 93:1 (92:1) For {1} the day before the Sabbath [LXX=For the
day before the day of the Sabbath], when the land was [first] inhabited, the
praise of a Song by David.  The Lord reigns, he has clothed himself with
honour: the Lord has clothed and girded himself with strength, for he has
established the world, which shall not be moved. {1) Alex: the Sabbath–day}

In Psalm 93:1, the Greek is: “for the day before the day of the Sabbath” –
“day” is singular in each instance and the word “Sabbath,” is also singular.  
The day before the day of the Sabbath would be the sixth day of the Hebrew
Week – the preparation day for the Seventh Day Sabbath; therefore, the
literal phrase for comprehension is: “On the sixth day of the seven days of
Sabbath”.


[THE SEVENTH DAY OF SABBATH]:
(Song: How Good It Is To Thank The Lord,
By Dwight Armstrong)



                  Idiom: “The Seventh of the Sabbaths”
   Literal: “The seventh day of the seven days of Sabbath”
                                               Or
                             
The Seventh Day Sabbath
                                               Or
                                      
The Sabbath Day

NKJ Psalm 92:1 A Psalm.  A Song for the Sabbath day (the day of the
Sabbath).  It is good to give thanks to the LORD, And to sing praises to
Your name, O Most High;

LXE Psalms 92:1 (91:1) A Psalm of a Song for the Sabbath–day (for the day
of the Sabbath)[LXX=A Psalm, a Song, for the day of the Sabbath].  It is a
good thing to give thanks to the Lord and to sing praises to your name, O
You Most High;

In Psalm 92:1, the Greek is: “for the day of the Sabbath” – day and Sabbath
are singular.  Literal for comprehension: “On the seventh day of the seven
days of Sabbath”.  Observe that even the NKJ included the fact of a Song
for the Sabbath Day.

We will observe the importance of the foregoing seven Psalms, from the
perspective of “The Seven Days of Sabbath” in our study of the word
translated as “week” in the English versions of the New Testament.

Continue...
The Seven Days of Sabbath
PART ONE
[THE FIRST DAY OF SABBATH]:
(Song: The Earth Is The Lord’s
By Clifford McCormick
Shawnee Press, Inc. A-208)