Many writers like to talk about the time when a given book was
written, or where it was written, and of course by whom it was
written, and to whom it was written. But in reality, the message
of the book of Romans is the important part for us today. Adam
Clarke gives the date of this book according to over 25 different
ways. The best I can tell, his conclusion is that this book was
written in 58AD or 62 years after the birth of the Messiah.
If this is the case, it had probably been over 20 years since Paul's
encounter with the Messiah on the road to Damascus. With his
background in the Old Testament, or the Bible of the Jews, and
time (3 years) spent in Arabia, probably with the Messiah, Paul
would be well equipped after 20 years to write this book.
This book is written to those who were at Rome and believed
on/in the Messiah. Paul is the author of the book and he
considers himself a slave of Yahshua (Joshua), the Messiah. The
word slave gives us a clearer picture of Paul's relationship with
God when looking at it from Paul's side. The word used here
means, 1) a slave; 2) devoted to another to the disregard of one's
own interests. The only thing that Paul was interested in was the
preaching of salvation made possible by the death and
resurrection of the Messiah.
Paul was divinely selected and appointed to be an apostle - one
sent forth with orders, set apart to preach the good news of God
which He had promised in the holy scriptures of the Jews by His
1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto
the gospel of God,
2 (Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the Holy Scriptures,)
That good news (gospel) was about The Son of God, Yahshua
(Joshua), the Messiah, our Master of whom we too should
consider ourselves slaves. Yahshua appeared in history, or came
upon the stage of the Jewish world, as a descendent of David. In
other words, He was a human being!
3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed
of David according to the flesh;
And because of His resurrection from the dead, He was declared
to be the Son of God with power. In other words, through the
powerful display of the resurrection it was clearly shown that
God the Father raised Him from the dead. This happened after
the Messiah had shown while alive that He was the Son of God by
the miracles He had performed and by living a life that was holy
as only could be accomplished by the indwelling of the spirit or
mind of God - without measure. There should have been no
doubt to any reasonable mind that He was the Son of God. His
life was too pure, the power that resided with Him was too
miraculous, and then at the end he died and was resurrected from
the tomb just as He had foretold would happen in 3 days and 3
nights to the split second. Only a fool or one requiring of himself
blindness could overlook the fact that He was the Son of God.
4 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of
holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:
It was by this Son of God that Paul had received the loving
kindness of God and was separated or set apart to be an apostle
of God. The reason for the apostleship was to teach <obedience>
to the faith among all nations, for the name of Yahshua (Joshua),
the Messiah. Notice that <obedience> is required in order to be a
disciple of the Messiah. This is not a <faith only> message that
Paul was set apart to teach, but one in which obedience was
required to the doctrines laid out as the way to become and be a
disciple of the Messiah.
5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the
faith among all nations, for his name:
This faith or set of doctrines was taught to all nations, among
them being the Romans some of whom were also called through
Joshua, the Messiah.
6 Among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ:
The message of this book was to all those who had been called at
Rome, who were beloved of God because He had called them,
and they had been called to be saints. The word saint is very
revealing. It means <holy>. In other words, To those who have
been called to be holy! Now, how is one to be holy? Obviously
one must have his past sins forgiven in order to be considered
holy. However, as Paul later asks, Are we to sin so that grace
may abound? If we refer back to the word obedience in verse 5
we understand that those called are chosen for the purpose of
<being> holy. There is action on the part of the one called. In
other words, we are not called to be spectators of what God can
do for us, but to be participants in a way of life, part of which is to
be holy. We are to participate in being holy as much as we can.
As Peter showed, even from the scriptures only known by the
Jews at that time, "We are to be holy, for God is holy," and we
are to be like Him! God wants sons, not bastards.
1Pe 1:16 Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy.
"If we sin," John said, "we have an advocate with the Father."
When we look at such a statement we realize how far we fall
short of what is possible in the life of a believer. According to
John, sin should be something that is occasional, if at all! Of
course, I am sure John is referring to sin in the letter. Sin
according to the spirit of the law is a higher goal for those who
have the holy spirit because they can reach higher than the letter
of the law. But, sin in the letter should be seldom, if ever! The
statement by John is, "<If> we sin!"
May loving-kindness be given to you and peace from God our
Father and Master, Joshua, the Messiah. I am sure that the
Roman believers would need a blessing of peace as they were
very close to the seat of Satan himself in Rome.
7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you
and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Paul was thankful to God the Father through Joshua, the Messiah
for all the Romans who had been called. For their faith was
spoken of throughout the whole world. It is obvious that they had
already remained firm to the truth even in times of severe trials
in order for their faith to be known throughout the world.
8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is
spoken of throughout the whole world.
Paul wanted them to know that God was fully aware that without
ceasing he had made mention of them in his prayers. They were
always on his mind because he knew what terrors could await one
in Rome. If this were 20 years or more after Paul's conversion, it
would seem that his first imprisonment in Rome had already
taken place. If that were the case, he would have known well
what Rome had in store for those who deviated from the pagan
practices of that heathen state which ruled the world at that
time. (We go back and forth on this issue of whether Paul had
already been in Rome at the time of this writing)
Paul makes a statement here that he serves God with his spirit.
In other words, with his innermost being he serves God. And he
does this by preaching the good news of the Son of God and what
His sacrifice and resurrection meant for mankind, as well as by
his way of life.
9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his
Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers;
Paul also prayed that he might have a prosperous journey to see
the Roman church, according to the will of God, as we must
always pray, for we don't always know what is best for us. Paul
had gone up to Jerusalem against the will of God and gotten
himself a prison term over several years with Rome in the early
part of his conversion. All things work together for good to those
who love God, so God worked out His plan for Paul even in spite
of his stubbornness. Perhaps at this time he was older and more
cautious to be in the will of God when he made his plans.
However, he did long to see those of the Roman church, that he
might be used as the instrument to give them some spiritual gift
so they could be established. The giving of some miraculous gift
would let them see the power of God and bolster their faith for
the difficult times ahead. Not that they needed this gift to
believe, for they had already believed.
10 Making request, if by any means now at length I might have a
prosperous journey by the will of God to come unto you.
11 For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, to
the end ye may be established;
Notice that both Paul's faith and their faith would be necessary in
order for them to receive this gift. Therefore, as a result of the
gift Paul would be comforted with them, realizing that God had
honored both their faith and his.
12 That is, that I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith
both of you and me.
Paul did not want the Romans to think that he had not attempted
to come and see them. He had often planned to go to Rome, but
he had been hindered up to this point. Paul wanted some
accomplished deeds among the Romans as he had among other
There might be some question that Paul had never been to Rome
at the time of this writing. There seems no doubt that Paul had
been to Rome as a prisoner, but not as a free man. His work
even from prison had no doubt given rise to the believers living at
Rome, even to whom he was writing.
If you will recall, when Paul went to Rome as a prisoner, he called
the Jews of Rome together to explain why he, a Jew, had been
sent to Rome as a prisoner for the message of salvation, which
was the hope of the Jews. There were no believers in Rome at
that time. Therefore, I believe that Paul is here referring to his
first time of going to Rome as a free man to visit a church that
had been established because of his teachings when he was in
Rome as a prisoner.
13 Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I
purposed to come unto you, (but was let hitherto,) that I might have some
fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.
Paul considered himself a debtor to all men to preach the good
news of salvation to everyone including the Romans as well as
those who were not Romans. No doubt this was because of the
command of the Messiah to preach the gospel into the entire
world for a witness.
The Barbarians were people other than the Romans who did not
understand or speak the Greek Language. And although the
Romans considered all ignorant who could not speak their
language, Paul knew that they were themselves ignorant so far as
the salvation of God was concerned. So, as long as he had the
strength and God gave him a door to preach the gospel, he
planned to do so, both to the wise (philosophers) and to the
unwise (illiterates - those who could not speak Greek).
As a sidelight, I think this tells us much about why the New
Testament was written in Greek rather than Hebrew. Greek
was the language of the then known world much as English is the
language of the present world. The Jews despised the Messiah
and it was known that little in the way of converts would result
from the Jews by the time the New Testament was being
penned. Anyone who could not speak Greek was considered a
Barbarian. Therefore, you can be sure that a good percentage of
the Jews did speak Greek. Greek could well have been the
second language of the Jews, perhaps even required of those who
would be considered educated. Commerce would have required
There is an indication that Matthew was originally written in
Hebrew, or perhaps more correctly, Aramaic; as that was
probably the first language of the Jews of New Testament times.
But, it too was soon translated into Greek in order to get the
message of the Messiah out to the world. Luke was a Greek, and
there is little question that Paul was fluent in Greek both written
and oral as he was a Roman citizen by birth, being from Tarsus a
city given Roman citizenship stature. It is without doubt that
Greek would have been the first language taught in Tarsus.
Luke and Paul wrote most of the New Testament. Mark seems
to have been from a wealthy Jewish family and therefore was no
doubt taught Greek. It seems that Mark wrote the book of
Mark, perhaps for Peter. He could have written 1st, 2nd and 3rd
Peter as well. John seems to have been most genteel and very
well may have known Greek. Some of the writers may have
written in Aramaic and were later translated into Greek.
No doubt, God had created circumstances so that His word of the
New Testament would not remain in Judea only, but go into the
entire world, as He had commissioned.
14 I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians; both to the
wise, and to the unwise.
15 So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that
are at Rome also.
Paul was not ashamed of the message that he had been given
about salvation through the Messiah, who was a Jew. For, the
gospel he was teaching was powerful enough to result in eternal
salvation to everyone who believed the message, which was
preached to the Jew first and then to the Greeks. For the
message was to begin in Judea, then go into Samaria, and then
into the rest of the world.
Ac 1:8 But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon
you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all
Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.
Of course, this is a famous verse isolated by the Protestants to
say that all we have to do is <believe>! But notice that the
phrase, when taken in context, is to everyone who believes the
message or gospel that Paul was teaching. As we saw earlier in
verse 5, obedience is required to be a disciple of the Messiah.
Once we understand about the covenant, it is obvious what that
requirement is. It is foolish to make a religion out of a few
isolated verses. We are to teach the <whole> word of God, not a
few isolated verses that seem to be saying something opposite to
the rest of the entire Bible.
Paul was not ashamed of this gospel even though he was a Jew,
preaching a Jewish Messiah to a Gentile world that despised the
Jews, and a man whom even the Jews despised and did not
16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of
God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to
The righteousness of God, or in other words, the justification
from our sins is made known by Paul's message about the
sacrifice of the Messiah. There is a stark contrast in the
righteousness of men or the justification from sins made with the
animal sacrifices by human priests compared to justification
through Joshua, the Messiah.
The transition from faith in animal sacrifices to faith in the
sacrifice of the Son of God is made known in the gospel that Paul
was teaching. Notice that Paul is referring to justification, for in
the last phrase of this verse he quotes an Old Testament verse
that, The <just> shall live by faith. Those who were considered
<just> under the Old Covenant had faith in the animal sacrifices.
Those who are justified under the New Covenant have faith in
the sacrifice of the Son of God. Paul was teaching a message
that showed the transition from the faith of the Jews in their
temple worship to the faith made possible by God through His
This, in a nutshell, is the life long message of Paul. He expresses
the message in many different ways, but it all comes back to the
point that justification from sin is now made possible by faith in
the Son of God. For the Messiah died for our sins. Paul contrast’
s this New Covenant justification to the justification that the
Jews had with faith in the animal sacrifices of the temple. It was
a message that could be titled, "From Faith to Faith” - For, God
instituted even the Old Covenant sacrifices! And until the
sacrifice of the Son of God, their faith was not misplaced. But, a
better way was made under the New Covenant. Therefore,
Paul's concentration was about this better way to justification
from transgressions of the law and the transition that must be
made in order to have salvation.
The just lived by faith under the Old Covenant and they still live
by faith under the New Covenant. After the death of the
Messiah, it was time to make the transition from the first faith to
the second and better faith.
1Co 2:2 For I determined not to know any thing among you, save Jesus
Christ, and him crucified.
17 For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as
it is written, The just shall live by faith.
Verse 19 begins the new paragraph according to the KJV.
However, verse 18 seems a more natural place to begin the
The wrath or character of God is such that it will always be
expressed against that which is contrary to His nature. Those
who are ungodly do not have a reverence for God. The
unrighteous are antinomian or against the law of God, in other
words, those who <hold back> the truth in a display of wrong
judgment and wrong actions in their lives. Paul is telling us that
God is watching! God's wrath is not upon those who live
according to the best of their ability, but on those who are going
against all sense of decency and being rebellious to a degree that
is beyond even what men of morals everywhere accepts as right.
Therefore, God's anger will be expressed according to the
degree that man defies His laws.
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness
and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness;
Why is God's wrath coming on these sinners more than other
sinners? Because there are certain things that may be known of
God merely by observation. God has seen to it that mankind is
not cut off from all reason, if he wants to be reasonable. A man
of common sense, who cannot know the secrets of God, yet can
know that peace is better than war. Therefore, peace should be
pursued. Life is better than death therefore one should not want
to go about killing people. The golden rule is known as a matter
of intelligence and reason by most peoples of the world. If we
don't want to have our sheep stolen, we should not steal our
neighbor's cattle. If we don't want war, we should not steal
cattle from another nation. If one doesn't want his wife taken by
another man, he should not go about taking other men's wives.
This has been figured out by most nations of the world. But as
Paul told Timothy times cycle about when men act like savages of
the jungle who seemingly have no ability to reason. God's wrath
is against savages and those who would act like animals. We will
see more of this in this section.
19 Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God
hath shewed it unto them.
But, Paul continues as to why people should act in a moral
manner even though they don't know the secrets of God. The
invisible things here seem to refer to the power of God and the
existence of God. Unless one is devoid of all rationale, he should
be able to look up in the sky and realize that some Being created
this display of grandeur. There had to be Someone who had
fantastic power and a great mind to bring all this about. Even
upon the earth there are rivers, mountains, wonders of the earth
so grand that one's mind should grasp that this did not all just
bring itself into existence.
Therefore, because of the witness of all the creation, they are
without excuse. Because of this creation, many men have had a
reverence for God to the point of living moral lives. However,
the pendulum swings from conservative to liberal and back to
conservative again. We are presently in the liberal part of the
20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are
clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his
eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:
Paul was looking at mankind from a historical perspective and
saw that mankind had for the most part been evil. Although they
had the marvelous creation, and therefore knew of God, leaving
them without excuse, they still did not praise and honor God.
They were not even thankful. But they concocted foolish thought
patterns. Their minds, being without understanding, were
covered with darkness. In other words, their character became
depraved. They could not see where to go because they had
fooled themselves into believing that they were wise. But God
understood that they were fools.
The picture Paul is painting here in this first chapter of Romans
could not have been painted any better to fit the description of
mankind today, even if he had been a prophet in this day and
age. But his description becomes even more graphic and apropos
for this degenerate people.
21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God,
neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their
foolish heart was darkened.
22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,
So, because their minds were covered with darkness, they
exchanged the splendor, praise, and honor and worship of God for
idolatry. Look at the body building industry. It is big business
today. Those who excel are exalted. Men who are perishing are
exalted. Look at the Olympics. An industry is built around a few
who are exalted above the rest of mankind. But, where is God in
all of this? These are modern day early manifestations of the
return to the worship of the images of men, birds, golden calves,
23 And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made
like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four footed beasts, and creeping
Remember that they left the common knowledge of the Creator
and their minds were covered with darkness. Therefore, God not
only allowed them to exchange worship for Him to idolatry of His
creation, but He also gave them over to impure motives and
moral depravity. This came about because of the craving of what
A man who believes in God, even as a result of only the creation
will put a check on his cravings, realizing that God is watching.
But, as these darkened minds no longer believe there is a God,
they give full rein to their lusts and cravings. They dishonor their
own bodies between themselves. We will see more of what Paul
is referring to here as we continue this section.
It astonishes one to see how people are dishonoring their own
bodies today. I saw a young man getting in his car at the local
hospital. His arms were tattooed almost entirely from one end to
the other. I cannot understand a mind that will disfigure his God
given body in such a way. There is no honor for what God has
given. What man does to disfigure the body is honored more than
the God who gave the body in the first place.
24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of
their own hearts, to dishonor their own bodies between themselves:
Paul stopped his thought in verse 24 and inserts a different
thought in verse 25.
They exchanged the truth of God for a lie. In context, Paul has
told us that the <truth> is the knowledge available to everyone
through the creation that God exists and that He created the
universe as we can see it about us. But, they exchanged this
truth for a lie. The lie is that God does not exist and that the
creation came into existence by the means of evolution! That is
the modern way it is explained. One of the modern gods is
evolution. The explanation of the past was that some false god or
gods had created the earth and the sky. In any case, it all comes
to the one common denominator. Once God is exchanged for the
creation, man will worship the creation. If we live long enough,
we will see how far this will go. We have tree worshipers in high
places! Men worship things rather than God. But, as Paul said,
God is to be praised forever, of that you can be sure. By using
the word <amen> Paul is saying that you can bank on the fact
that God does exist and that your praise is to go to Him.
25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served
the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.
In the following verse, Paul returns to his thought in verse 24.
God gave them over to their lusts so that they dishonored
themselves among themselves. The KJV translators were overly
prudent here. What Paul is telling the Romans is that the women
became prostitutes and lesbians. I am sure that those to whom
Paul was writing in Rome were well aware of the perversions of
the intellectual Romans whose minds had been covered with
26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their
women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:
Not only the women, but the men as well, abandoned women in
preference for other men to exploit their sexual lust. Men with
men doing that which is shameful and unknown even in the animal
world. As a result of these perversions they will reap the penalty
that comes because they have strayed from the truth. And this is
as it should be, Paul says. If one breaks laws so violently, it is
necessary that something bring them back to a semblance of what
is normal. This sort of thing was well known in the Gentile world
of the Romans. The Jewish world had the law and while they
were not by any means perfect, they were required to hew to a
Men who were the descendants of Abraham created America.
They not only knew God because of the creation, but also
because they had the bible handed down by the Jews as well as
the New Testament handed down through the Greeks. We are
dealing with a new thing not even explained here by Paul. These
Gentiles did not have the Holy Scriptures. So, today we have
become even more sophisticated in our rejection of God.
Evolution has replaced the gods of the pagans as the creator and
power of the universe. Money and the creation have become the
gods of this nation in a more subtle way. But, it all comes to the
same thing. Man has turned his back on God and in fact, as
always, made himself god. The pagans had nothing on the
modern world with their pluralistic gods. Money, things, sex,
evolution, and the environment are only a few of the gods
worshipped by modern man.
27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman,
burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that
which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their
error which was meet.
In proportion to their dislike for God in their educational
institutions and in their individual minds, God give them over to a
rebellious mind to do those things that are not respectable, in like
measure. The word <knowledge> is used of science. They
arrived at other conclusions for the creation than God. But, their
gods don't require that they be moral. Therefore, they can do
according to their lust.
28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God
gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not
Paul catalogs their evil deeds. They are consumed with all kinds
of evil deeds. Fornication is used here as a word to cover all
types of sexual perversions. Wickedness is depravity, and
iniquity. Covetousness is greedy, never satisfied, wanting more
and more. Maliciousness is a desire to hurt others. Envy is the
quality of being discontent and resentful toward others with the
desire for the possessions or qualities of someone else. Murder is
killing a human being, intentionally for one's own revenge or
profit. Debate is strife and wrangling. Deceit is akin to trickery
and falsehood. Malignity or like a malignant cancer, they are
threatening to life itself. In other words, they are deadly, full of
hatred with a great desire to do harm to others. Witness the
mass shootings of later years. These people are malignant with
demons, causing them to try to destroy all that is in sight.
Whisperers are those who go behind someone's back and secretly
try to discredit and defame them. Backbiters are those who go
about speaking against those who teach the truth. The word
<backbiters> is not a good translation. The word used for
<whisperers> could have been translated as backbiters. The
word used here for <backbiters> has the meaning of <speakers>
in it. One translation uses the word <slanderers>. In other
words, those who stand up and aim at slandering those who teach
the truth. Haters of God reminds us of those who teach that God
is dead, and are even now trying to snuff out the idea of God in
One who is <despiteful> is insolent, heaping insults upon others or
in some way shamefully mistreating them. Proud denotes one
who is haughty and arrogant. The word <boasters> indicates an
empty pretender. Inventors of evil things is prevalent
everywhere today. Now that the government has sanctioned evil,
whole industries have developed to support this evil. Gambling,
abortion, drugs, and sexual perversion have competitors of each
industry trying to outdo one another to titillate the senses by
always coming up with something new to lure in those who have
money to pay for these evils.
They are disobedient, cannot be persuaded, and are obstinate
toward their parents. Of course, in this society, the parent is
rarely there to influence them anyway. The father in many cases
checked out soon after the impregnation or birth of the child and
the mother feels burdened with having to keep up this accident.
When one parent does try to raise the child, he/she is doing so
with one hand tied behind his/her back. In a society where honor
and duty are taught, this can be accomplished. However in this
society where one's peers determines his conduct there can be
nothing but evil come from such an arrangement.
29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness,
covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit,
30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil
things, disobedient to parents,
They are without understanding, or in other words they are
stupid and are unintelligent. They are covenant breakers, or
without faith. They can't settle down and build for the future, for
they don't believe that there is a future. The atomic and
hydrogen bombs have changed the way the young people of today
think. They cannot see any hope for the future, so they believe in
getting theirs while the getting is good, even if they have to take
it from others. Without God there is no hope in the world.
They are without natural affection or, unsociable, inhuman,
unloving, and without conscience. They are implacable, or cannot
be persuaded to enter into a covenant. Witness the many live-in
arrangements. One or the other side and maybe even both sides
don't want to be tied to the other with a covenant. They want to
be able to walk away when they please. They don't want to be
bogged down with any promises that may come back to hinder
them from getting a better arrangement in the future. They have
no mercy. If someone gets in their way, they just blow him away.
31 Without understanding, covenant breakers, without natural affection,
Paul tells us that those who from the creation can see and
understand the golden rule should do unto others, as they would
have others do to them. Otherwise they will reap the natural
effects of the laws put into force by God. Yet, they still go
ahead, do the wrong things, and have delight in others who live
their lives in the same manner. In other words, they live heedless
lives and associate with and promote those who do the same.
32 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things
are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that
What a travesty that the descendants of Israel have allowed
themselves to become like the heathen! Nevertheless, there is
always a day of reckoning associated with such behavior. Soon
the piper must be paid for his magic of keeping alive such
animalistic behavior. If the medical profession had not
intervened, the price would have been paid long ago. However,
because of their devises to promote evil, the downside has been
prolonged. Soon some calamity will take the future out of man's
hands and justice will be required. In other words, the time of
Jacob's trouble will be upon us.