Additional Notes on “Those of the Eleven”
Mark 16:14:
He appeared <to those of the eleven> is correct for Mark 16:14
(supposing it is not spurious – the subject of our study); as
Thomas was not part of this group and as the maximum of the
group could have been only ten of the eleven – when Christ
appeared to them – the Greek provided a limiting factor
ignored by the translators into English.

NKJ Mark 16:14
Later He appeared to the eleven (to those of the
eleven disciples)
as they sat at the table; and He rebuked their unbelief
and hardness of heart, because they did not believe those who had seen
Him after He had risen.

Free Translation:
Luke 24:33
And they rose up the same hour, and returned to
Jerusalem, and they found gathered together, those of the eleven
(disciples) and those with them. 34 They reported that The Lord is
risen indeed, and
hath appeared to Simon.

This translation of Luke 24:33 might seem to imply that Simon
was not in this group of disciples gathered in Jerusalem just
before Christ appeared to them; however, the bible does not
tell us how the two disciples knew Simon had seen Christ.  We
will study this verse in detail just ahead.

We probably find the answer to the mystery of whether Simon
Peter was one of the
“two disciples” whom Christ met on the
road to Emmaus in the fact that Luke is the writer of this part
of scripture.  Luke was not one of the Apostles.  He wrote the
book of Luke from what others told him; they were
eyewitnesses to these things; however, Luke was not an
eyewitness.

Luke 1:1Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a
declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us,
2
Even as they delivered them (those things) unto us, which from the
beginning were eyewitnesses,
and ministers of the word;

Therefore, we should observe that what Luke wrote in his book
is that of one reporting secondhand information, not as an
eyewitness.  Had Luke been an eyewitness of the gathering of
these eleven disciples, one could expect him to relate
information that was more specific.  Luke is very general here.  
This does not in anyway indicate that Luke’s account is
deficient, from the perspective of truth; rather, it explains how
Luke could have omitted certain details that we might deem
important from our perspective, but details that God did not
inspire Luke to seek out and record.

Luke 24:34
Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to
Simon.

Therefore, Simon Peter was probably one of the “two
disciples”
whom Christ met on the road to Emmaus.  If true,
Peter would have been with
“those of the eleven” disciples
when Christ appeared to them in the evening of the first day of
the week.

It is probable that Peter and Cleopas picked up John on their
way back into Jerusalem, just as they probably parted with him
on their way, from the tomb to Emmaus, sometime before
Christ joined them.  If this is correct, then all of the eleven
were probably present, except Thomas.
SECOND CONCEPT OF MARK 16:13
We find proof of the second concept of Mark 16:13 (neither
believed they them)
in Luke 24:41 for they were still in a state
of disbelief when Yahshua appeared to them for the first
time, as a group.

Luke 24:41
And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered,
he said unto them, Have ye here any meat (food)?
Mark 16:14  Afterward he appeared unto the eleven (those of the
eleven)
as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief
and hardness of heart,
because they believed not them, which had
seen him after he was risen.

EMTV:
Mark 16:14  
Afterwards He appeared to the eleven (to those of the
eleven)
as they were reclining at the table; and He rebuked their
unbelief and hardness of heart, because they did not believe those
who saw Him after He had been raised.

Verse 14 has 6 major concepts: 1) Yahshua appeared to
those of His eleven disciples after he had appeared to
Magdalene, the group of women, and the two disciples (we
find this concept in the one word (afterward);
2) He
appeared to those of the eleven of His disciples;
3) He
appeared to them while they were reclining;
4) He scolded
them for their unbelief and insensitivity;
5) His reprimand
was because they did not believe Magdalene, the other
women, nor the two disciples;
6) Magdalene, the other
women, and the two disciples saw Him after He was risen.
Therefore, Mark 16:13 is biblical from the perspective
of its concepts When properly translated.
FIRST CONCEPT OF MARK 16:14
We have already proved, in our study, the first concept
(
Afterward); in other words, Yahshua appeared first to
Magdalene, then to the other women, and then to the two
disciples on the road to Emmaus.  He appeared to Simon Peter
– probably as one of the two disciples going to Emmaus –
sometime before He appeared to
“those of the eleven”.
SECOND CONCEPT OF MARK 16:14
The aorist tense is characterized by its emphasis on punctiliar
action; that is, the concept of the verb is considered without
regard for past, present, or future time.  There is no direct or
clear English equivalent for this tense, though it is generally
rendered as a simple past tense in most translations.
Luke 24:33-36 contains the second concept (he appeared to those
of the eleven).

Free Translation:
Luke 24:33
And they rose up the same hour, and returned to
Jerusalem, and they found gathered together, those of the eleven and
those with them
34 They reported that The Lord is risen indeed, and
hath appeared to Simon.

KJV:
Luke 24:35
And they told what things were done in the way, and how
he was known of them in breaking of bread.
36  And as they thus spake,
Jesus (Yahshua) himself stood in the midst
of them,
and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.

We know that the Messiah appeared to Simon before He
appeared to those of the eleven.  Simon was probably one of
this group; however, we know that Thomas was not one of this
group.

John 20:18
Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had
seen the Lord,
and that he had spoken these things unto her.
19  Then
the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when
the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the
Jews,
came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be
unto you.
24
But Thomas, one of the (original) twelve, called Didymus, was not
with them when Jesus came.

Again, Simon was probably one of the two disciples on the road
to Emmaus.  The bible gives us the name of Cleopas only, who
may have been the spokesman here:
“Saying, The Lord is risen
indeed, and hath appeared to Simon”.
 As we mentioned earlier,
we must consider that the writer of this passage is Luke, as a
reporter of other witnesses – not as an eyewitness of the
account himself.  

Ponder that neither of them recognized Christ when He
appeared to them.  Moreover, although they mentioned the
witness of the women and mentioned that
“certain ones with us
went to the sepulcher
(probably a reference to Peter and John)
and
found it empty” they said nothing to Christ of what one of
them now reported to
“those of the eleven” that “Christ has
appeared to Simon”.
 Therefore, either Simon was one of the
“two disciples” or they had to learn of this information, on
their way back into Jerusalem; and the bible says nothing of
that.  The fact that Christ immediately vanished out of their
sight upon their recognition of Him eliminates the possibility
that He told them about seeing Peter.

On the Road to Emmaus:
Luke 24:22 Yea, and certain women also of our company made us
astonished, which were early at the sepulchre;
23 And when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had
also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.
24 And certain of them, which were with us, went (came) to the
sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they
saw not.

John 20:2 Then she (Magdalene) runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter,
and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them,
They
have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre,
and we know not
where they have laid him.

To get the time sequence of these events read John chapter 20
and (see sequence of events below).

One concept we should not overlook is that the women
reporting to
“us” had only secondhand information.  In other
words, the women, including Mary Magdalene had not seen
Yahshua, when they told
“us” the message from the angels.  
“Us” probably included Peter, John, and Cleopas.  

One may translate
“went to the sepulchre” as “came to the
sepulchre”.
 The verb translated <went> in this context, implies
that the women traveled to Emmaus or for some distance and
found
“us” certain of whom came to the sepulchre.  However,
the verb translated <went> is in the aorist tense: The Greek
considers this verb without regard for past, present, or future
time (See aorist tense below).  When we translate into the
English, we must provide a tense, as we do not have an aorist
tense or anything to compare to it in English.  Therefore,
“certain of them, which were with us” came to the tomb soon after
the women had arrived; and the women, while there at the
tomb, reported to them that they had seen the angels, but had
not seen Christ.  Soon thereafter, Mary Magdalene saw
Christ.  She then went on her way to
“those of the eleven”
while Christ appeared before the other women after which
Magdalene caught up with the other women and together they
went to find the eleven disciples.  During this time, Christ
approached the two disciples on the road to Emmaus, which
undoubtedly included Peter.

Online Bible:
John 20:1  The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early,
when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken
away from the sepulchre.
2 Then
she (Mary Magdalene) runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter,
and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved,
and saith unto them,
They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not
where they have laid him.
3 Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the
sepulchre.
4 So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter,
and came first to the sepulchre.
5 And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying;
yet went he not in.
6 Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the
sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie,
7 And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen
clothes, but wrapped (collapsed) together in a place by itself.
8 Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the
sepulchre, and he saw, and believed.
9 For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from
the dead.
10
Then the disciples went away again unto their own home (by
themselves).

From this passage, we know that Simon Peter came to the
tomb with another disciple.  The disciple whom Yahshua loved
was John.  The bible mentions only these two disciples being at
the tomb on the first day of the week after the resurrection.  
However, Cleopas spoke to Christ of these things.  Therefore,
we can probably conclude that Cleopas was one of <us> along
with Peter and John <certain of them> that <went to the
sepulcher>.  We can make this conclusion, because certain
women including Mary Magdalene reported the information to
Peter and the “other disciple” that the tomb was empty.  Some
of the women told Peter and John that they had see a vision of
angels, which said that He was alive.  

Luke 24:22 Yea, and certain women also of our company made us
astonished, which were early at the sepulchre;
23 And when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had
also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.
24 And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre, and
found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not.

John 20:1 The first day of the week cometh
Mary Magdalene early,
when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken
away from the sepulchre.
2 Then
she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other
disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken
away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they
have laid him.

The implication is that Cleopas was with Peter and John when
they went to the tomb.  He may not have been at the mouth of
the sepulchre, as John outran even Peter who ran and caught
up with John and surged on into the sepulchre before John.  
Cleopas could have been an older man and did not arrive until
later.

This leaves only one problem to resolve.  Was John in this
group of eleven, to whom Christ appeared?  The bible implies
that only Thomas was missing.  Considering that
“the disciple
whom Yahshua loved”
– John – went back home; and
considering that Peter and John were probably
“certain of
them, which were with us”
; Peter and Cleopas probably picked
up John on their way back into Jerusalem.  Recall again that
Luke reported this as secondhand information; while what he
reported is true we lack the details of an eyewitness reporter.  
However, if we are correct in this assessment, this means that
Magdalene reported of Christ’s resurrection, to only eight of
“the eleven”.
THIRD CONCEPT OF MARK 16:14
We find the third concept – really two concepts in one – (as
they sat at meat
) in Luke 24:41-43.  The fact that they had a
piece of broiled fish to give to Christ indicates that they were
eating a meal when He entered the room or had not long
finished a meal.

Luke 24:41 And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he
said unto them,
Have ye here any meat?
42 And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb.
43 And
he took it, and did eat before them.

However, the Greek word used in the phrase “as they sat at
meat”
(avnakeime,noij) does not specifically indicate the act
of eating or sitting at a table with food or waiting at a table for
someone to serve food.  Generally, the word means to recline.  
Examine the use of this word in John 13:23, which says
nothing of eating or a table.  

John 13:23 Now there was leaning <345> (5740) on Jesus’ bosom one
of his disciples, whom Jesus loved.

Observe further that in Mark 16:14 – the verse under
consideration – Young’s Literal Translation puts the words (
at
meat
) in parenthesizes indicating that the Greek does not
require these words in a literal translation.  However, the
context of Luke 24:41-43 does indicate that they were eating
or had finished eating and that they were reclining when
Christ entered the room.

YLT:
Mark 16:14 Afterwards, as they are reclining (at meat), he was
manifested to the eleven, and did reproach their unbelief and stiffness
of heart, because they believed not those having seen him being raised;
The Disciple Whom Yahshua Loved
The following passage proves that “the disciple whom Yahshua
loved”
was John: In other words, John wrote these things;
therefore, he was the disciple whom Yahshua loved!

John 21:20  Then Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus
(Yahshua) loved
following; which also leaned on his breast at supper,
and said, Lord, which is he that betrayeth thee?
21 Peter seeing him saith to Jesus, Lord, and what shall this man do?
22 Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that
to thee? Follow thou me.
23 Then went this saying abroad among the brethren, that that disciple
should not die: yet Jesus said not unto him, He shall not die; but, If I
will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?
24
This is the disciple, which testifieth of these things, and wrote
these things
: and we know that his testimony is true.
FOURTH CONCEPT OF MARK 16:14
Now, let us discuss the fourth concept (and upbraided them with
their unbelief and hardness of heart
).  This clause really has
three concepts:
1) Christ upbraided them; 2) They still did not
believe that God had resurrected Him, and
3) Their hearts
were hardened against the belief of His resurrection.  When we
consult the Greek, we find that we do not have to translate this
clause so severely.  The Greek word for <upbraid> may have
the connotation of <scolding – varying degrees> and the word
for <hardness of heart> may have the connotation of
<insensitivity – varying degrees >.  

Therefore, we could translate this clause:
“and He scolded
them for their unbelief and insensitivity”.
 As the bible does not
specify the intensity of His scolding nor the degree of their
insensitivity, one must not arbitrarily put those terms at the
higher end of their limits.

We have already proved that they did not believe the witnesses
of Magdalene, the other women, or the two disciples.  
Moreover, they did not believe Christ until He ate some food in
front of them to prove that He was not a ghost.  Considering
that Christ had often mentioned that He would rise the third
day, one can understand how that Christ was beginning to get a
little perturbed at their skepticism.  As one might say in the
vernacular: Duh!  Moreover, as the words of the bible do not
include the intensity of the tone of what Christ said, we cannot
know the intensity of His scolding.

We find the concept that Yahshua scolded them for their
insensitivity in Luke 24:38-39.  Consider, as the words of the
bible do not include the force of Christ’s voice when He spoke
these words, we do not know the intensity of His “rebuke”.  
Moreover, He showed them His hands and feet; and when they
still did not believe, He ate some fish and honey to prove that
He was not a ghost.  Also, observe the insensitivity in verse 41
“they yet believed not”.  However, it was beginning to sink in:
“for joy and as they marveled”.

Luke 24:36 And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of
them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
37 But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had
seen a spirit.
38 And he said unto them,
Why are ye troubled?  And why do thoughts
arise in your hearts?
39 Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and
see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
40 And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet.
41 And
while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered (marveled),
he said unto them, Have ye here any meat?
42 And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb.
43 And he took it, and did eat before them.

We prefer the less severe translation of Mark 16:14 for two
reasons:
1) The context of Yahshua’s remarks to “those of the
eleven”
in Luke 24:36-43 does not support a strong response;
and
2) God withheld their knowledge of Yahshua’s
resurrection until after His resurrection.  Had they believed
that Yahshua would rise from the dead within three days, as He
had previously told them, where would be their mourning, as
prophesied by the Messiah, in John 16:20?

John 16:20 Verily, verily, I say unto you, That ye shall weep and
lament, but the world shall rejoice: and ye shall be sorrowful, but your
sorrow shall be turned into joy.
FIFTH & SIXTH CONCEPTS OF MARK 16:14
We have already proved the last two concepts (because they
believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.
) in our
previous study.
Therefore the concepts of Mark 16:14 are biblical, when
properly translated.
Mark 16:15 And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and
preach the gospel to every creature.

EMTV:
Mark 16:15 And He said to them, "Go into all the world and proclaim
the gospel to all creation.

Verse 15 has two major concepts: 1) The Apostles were to go
into the entire world, and
2) The Apostles were to preach the
gospel to everyone.
FIRST AND SECOND CONCEPTS OF
MARK 16:15
We find both of these concepts in the following scriptures.

Acts 1:8 But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost (holy
spirit) is come upon you: and
ye shall be witnesses unto me both in
Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and
unto the uttermost
part of the earth.

Matthew 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all
the world for a witness unto all nations;
and then shall the end come.

We also include Matthew 28:19 although the underlined part is
spurious (
See The Trinity).  We find this portion spurious
because it contradicts the rest of the bible, as supported by proof
given in
The Trinity.

KJV:
Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in
the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

Corrected:
Matthew 28:19 Go you into all the world and make disciples of all
nations.
Therefore, Mark 16:15 is biblical, from the perspective
of its concepts.
Mark 16:16 He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he
that believeth not shall be damned (condemned).

EMTV:
Mark 16:16 He that believes and is baptized shall be saved; but he that
does not believe shall be condemned.

Verse 16 has two major concepts: 1) He that believes and is
baptized shall be saved, and
2) He that does not believe shall not
be saved.
FIRST & SECOND CONCEPTS OF MARK 16:16
We find both of these concepts throughout the New Testament;
observe the following verses.

John 3:18 He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that
believeth not is condemned already,
because he hath not believed in the
name of the only begotten Son of God.

Acts 2:38 Then Peter said unto them,
Repent, and be baptized every one
of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins,
and ye shall
receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.

John 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son,
that
whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting
life.

John 3:36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that
believeth not the Son shall not see life;
but the wrath of God abideth on
him.
Therefore, Mark 16:16 is biblical, from the perspective
of its concepts.
Mark 16:17 And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my
name shall they cast out devils (demons); they shall speak with new
tongues;

EMTV:
Mark 16:17 And these signs shall accompany those who have believed:
In My name they shall cast out demons; they shall speak with new
tongues;

Verse 17 has three major concepts: 1) Signs will follow the
believers;
2) They will cast out demons in the name of Yahshua;
3) They will speak with new tongues.
FIRST – THIRD CONCEPTS OF MARK 16:17
We find these concepts in the following scriptures.

John 14:12 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me, the
works that I do shall he do also; and greater [works] than these shall
he do;
because I go unto my Father.

Acts 8:7 For
unclean spirits, crying with loud voice, came out of many
that were possessed
[with them]: and many taken with palsies, and that
were lame, were healed.

1Corinthians 12:10 To another the working of miracles; to another
prophecy; to another discerning of spirits;
to another [divers] kinds of
tongues;
to another the interpretation of tongues:
Therefore, Mark 16:17 is biblical, from the perspective
of its concepts.
Mark 16:18 They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any
deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and
they shall recover.

EMTV:
Mark 16:18 they shall pick up serpents; and if they drink anything
deadly, it shall by no means hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick,
and they shall be well."

Verse 18 has two major concepts: 1) Christ’s believers would
not be hurt, if serpents accidentally bit them or they
unknowingly consumed deadly poison, and
2) They would lay
hands on the sick, which would recover.
FIRST & SECOND CONCEPTS OF MARK 16:18
We find the concepts of this verse in the following verses.  We
do not find the concept that one can knowingly take up
serpents or drink poison without being hurt.  One should not
tempt God.

1Corinthians 10:9 Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also
tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.

Matthew 4:7 Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not
tempt the Lord thy God.

Luke 10:19 Behold, I give unto you power to tread on serpents and
scorpions,
and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by
any means hurt you.

Acts 28:3 And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid
them on the fire,
there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on
his hand.  
4 And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand,
they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom,
though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.
5 And
he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm.
6 Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down
dead suddenly: but
after they had looked a great while, and saw no
harm come to him, they changed their minds, and said that he was a
god.

Acts 5:16 There came also a multitude [out] of the cities round about
unto Jerusalem,
bringing sick folks, and them which were vexed with
unclean spirits: and they were healed every one.

Beyond this, one should focus on salvation rather than the
ability to perform miracles.

Luke 10:20 Notwithstanding in this rejoice not, that the spirits are
subject unto you; but rather rejoice, because your names are written
in heaven.
Therefore, Mark 16:18 is biblical, from the perspective
of its concepts.
Mark 16:19  So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was
received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.

EMTV:
Mark 16:19  So then, after the Lord had spoken to them, He was taken
up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God.

Verse 19 has two major concepts: 1) After Yahshua had
spoken to them, he was received up into heaven and
2) He sat
on the right hand of God.
FIRST CONCEPT OF MARK 16:19
We find the first concept (So then after the Lord had spoken unto
them, he was received up into heaven)
in Acts 1:9.

Acts 1:9 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he
was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight.
SECOND CONCEPT OF MARK 16:19
We find the second concept (and sat on the right hand of God) in
Hebrews 10:12.

Hebrews 10:12 But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice
for sins forever, sat down on the right hand of God;
Therefore, Mark 16:19 is biblical, from the perspective
of its concepts.
Mark 16:20 And they went forth, and preached everywhere, the
Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs
following.
 Amen.

EMTV:
Mark 16:20 And they went out and preached everywhere, the Lord
working with them and confirming the word through the accompanying
signs.  Amen.

Verse 20 has two major concepts: 1) The Apostles went
everywhere preaching the Gospel and
2) Christ worked with
them by confirming the word with signs following.
FIRST CONCEPT OF MARK 16:20
Observe the following verses for the first concept: (And they
went forth, and preached everywhere).

3John 1:7 Because that for his name’s sake they went forth, taking
nothing of the Gentiles.

Acts 8:4  Therefore
they that were scattered abroad went everywhere
preaching the word.

The following scripture presents Paul in the process of fulfilling
Mark 16:20, when one translates it properly.  We submit this
scripture for two reasons:
1) It shows Christ’s prophecy in
progress of being fulfilled, and
2) We have an opportunity to
correct a mistranslation to further the understanding that –
when properly translated – the bible does not contradict itself.  
Based on the KJV translation of Colossians 1:23, everyone had
already heard the Gospel while Paul was yet alive.  Even after
almost 2000 years, not everyone has heard the Gospel.  

The word <preached> is in the aorist tense, and the participle
mood.  We have discussed the aorist tense briefly: Recall that
one must let the context determine, as much as possible,
whether to translate into the English as past, present, or
future.  To translate as past tense creates a contradiction.  The
participle mood indicates ongoing action in this verse.  When
properly translated, we understand that Paul was currently
preaching the Gospel as well as the other apostles in a large
part of the known world.  In other words, Christ’s disciples
were making great progress toward fulfilling the prophecy and
goal of preaching the gospel to the entire world.

KJV:
Colossians 1:23 If ye continue in the faith grounded and settled, and
[be] not moved away from
the hope of the gospel, which ye have
heard, [and] which was preached to every creature which is under
heaven;
whereof I Paul am made a minister;

FREE TRANSLATION:
Colossians 1:23 If you continue in the faith, being firm and settled, and
not moving away from the hope of the message of good news, which you
have heard -
the message of good news, which is being proclaimed in
all the creation that is under heaven,
of which I Paul am a servant.
SECOND CONCEPT OF MARK 16:20
Observe the following verses for the second concept: (the Lord
working with them, and confirming the word with signs following).

Acts 2:43 And fear came upon every soul: and many wonders and
signs were done by the apostles.

Acts 5:12  And by the hands of the apostles were many signs and
wonders wrought among the people;
(and they were all with one
accord in Solomon’s porch.

Acts 14:3 Long time therefore abode they speaking boldly in
the Lord,
which gave testimony unto the word of his grace, and granted signs
and wonders to be done by their hands.

Romans 15:18 For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which
Christ hath not wrought by me, to make the Gentiles obedient, by word
and deed,
19
Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of
God;
so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have
fully preached the gospel of Christ.

2Corinthians 12:12 Truly the signs of an apostle were wrought
among you in all patience, in signs, and wonders, and mighty deeds.

Hebrews 2:4 God also bearing [them] witness, both with signs and
wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost,
according to his own will?

We should not overlook that the bible designates signs,
wonders and mighty deeds as the signs of an apostle;
moreover, that God gave these signs and wonders
“according
to His own will”.
 Therefore, one should not expect that all
believers would automatically display these signs.  Moreover,
God gave signs in the first century church to back up the
Gospel.  Today, the problem is different.  We find that the
problem is more one of corruption of the Gospel than a total
disbelief, where one might find signs profitable.
Therefore, Mark 16:20 is biblical, from the perspective of
its concepts.
We have studied Mark 16:9-20 in detail and find that every
concept mentioned in this passage of scripture – when properly
translated from the Greek – is elsewhere in the bible.  No
correctly translated concept of Mark 16:9-20 contradicts what
we find in the rest of the New Testament.  Combine this
reality with the fact that the Majority Text includes this
passage as part of the majority of the handwritten manuscripts
of the New Testament and we have strong evidence that this
passage is not spurious.  In fact, with this information, we
would need to see Mark’s autograph copy of this book, to
come to any other conclusion.  

We understand that two of the oldest Greek handwritten
manuscripts do not include this passage.  However, human
error being what it is, one can easily fabricate explanations for
such an exclusion.  The apostle Paul informs us that the
mystery was already at work during his lifetime.

2Thessalonians 2:7 For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only
he who now letteth [will let], until he be taken out of the way.

We know that four different endings to Mark 16 exist.  
Considering that the two oldest Greek manuscripts do not
include this passage, it would follow that others might try to
add to the abrupt ending of verse 8 when copying from these
two manuscripts.  However, of the four endings, only the one
we consider here is in the majority of the Greek handwritten
manuscripts – and in the oldest according to Bullinger (see
below).

Let us conclude by saying that the reader must make his own
determination whether this passage is “spurious” or
otherwise.  The concepts of Mark 16:9-20 are biblical;
therefore, if one abandons this portion of scripture, he must
still believe the message, for we find these concepts in other
parts of the New Testament, where they are undisputed.  This
should take away any incentive for describing these verses
spurious.
Sequence of Events after the Resurrection
Beginning with Dawn on the First Day of the Week
Until Christ Had Seen His Disciples as a Group the
Third Time
(As It affects Our Study of Mark 16:9-20)
1)        Mary Magdalene and the other women left for the tomb
just as light began to penetrate the dark, on the first day of
the week after the resurrection.
2)        An earthquake occurred before the women got to the
tomb coinciding with the descending of the angel of the Lord
who rolled the stone away from the door of the sepulcher and
sat upon it.  The guards fled and were not there when the
women arrived.
3)        The stone was gone from the sepulcher when the
women approached: the sun was in the process of rising above
the horizon.
4)        The women looked into the sepulcher and found the
body of Christ missing.
5)        Mary Magdalene saw Peter, John and Cleopas
approaching in the distance.  She ran and gave them the news
that Christ body was missing.
6)        The other women entered into the sepulcher, the angel
of the Lord told them of the resurrection, told them to report
to Peter and the other disciples; but they fled and for fear said
nothing to anyone at this point.
7)        John outran Peter and came to the tomb but did not go
in; Peter ran into the tomb ahead of John; then John went into
the tomb.  Peter saw that the grave clothes had collapsed and
wondered; John saw the same thing and believed because he
knew that the body had vanished out of the grave clothes.
8)        John, Peter, and Cleopas left the area of the tomb and
went off by themselves.  They probably decided to go to
Emmaus.  Somewhere along the way, John probably left them.
9)        Mary Magdalene went back for another look in the
Sepulcher.  She saw the angel of the Lord who asked her why
she was weeping.  She replied,
“because they have taken away my
Lord and I know not where they have laid Him”.
 She then turned
around and saw Yahshua, but thought He was the gardener.  
During their conversation, Yahshua revealed Himself to Mary
Magdalene.  Christ told her to go and tell those of the disciples
that He was alive.
10)        Magdalene went off to find the other women; before
she caught up with them, Christ met the other women and said,
“All hail”.  The women held Him by the feet and worshiped
Him.  He gave them a message to take to those of the
disciples.  
11)        Magdalene caught up with the other women and they
went together into Jerusalem to tell the disciples that Christ
was alive and that He was going to see them soon.
12)        Meanwhile, some of the guard went into the city
(Jerusalem) and told the chief priests what had happened.  The
elders eventually came together, gave the guards large sums
of money, and fabricated the tale that the disciples had stolen
Christ’s body from the tomb while the guards were sleeping.
13)        While the guards were reporting to the chief priests,
Magdalene and the other women found some of the eleven
disciples and told them what they had seen and heard.  The
disciples did not believe them and accounted their message as
idle tales.  
14)        It should be noted here that Luke 24:12 is out of
sequence.  Luke was a secondhand reporter.  While his
message is true, it is not always in proper sequence or detailed.
15)        While Magdalene and the other women were finding
and reporting to some of the disciples, Christ caught up with
two disciples on the road to Emmaus.  The evidence indicates
these two disciples to be Cleopas and Peter.  They walked
along talking; and at their invitation, Christ went in to eat a
meal with them and they recognized Him, as He was breaking
the bread, for the meal.  Yahshua then vanished out of their
sight and they immediately returned into Jerusalem to tell the
other disciples about their discovery.  They probably found
John on their way into the city – Jerusalem: where the
disciples had assembled for fear of the Jews.
16)        The two disciples reported that Peter had seen
Yahshua, spoke of the discourse with Christ as they walked on
their way to Emmaus and how they knew Christ at the
breaking of bread.  The time constraint and the way they
reported this strongly imply that Peter was one of the two
disciples on the road to Emmaus.
17)        The disciples assembled in Jerusalem did not believe
the report of the two disciples anymore than they did that of
Magdalene or the other women.
18)        At this point, Christ appeared in the room where those
of the eleven were sitting.  This was His first appearance to
“the eleven”.  Thomas was not there.  They thought they saw
a ghost.  Christ scolded them for their unbelief and
insensitivity.  He showed them His hands, feet, and side and
finally ate something just to prove to them that He was a real
being.   They were glad when it finally began to sink in that
Christ really was alive.
19)        The disciples later saw Thomas and told him that
Christ was alive, reporting everything they had seen and
heard.  Thomas did not believe.
20)        Eight days later, the disciples were together in a room
and Thomas was with them.  Christ appeared before them –
the doors of the room closed, and He did not open them to get
in.  Christ singled out Thomas, who finally believed.  This was
the second time Christ appeared to those of the eleven, as a
group.
21)        Christ met His disciples, as a group, the third time by
the sea of Tiberias.

John 21:1 After these things Jesus shewed himself again to the
disciples at the sea of Tiberias; and on this wise shewed he [himself].

John 21:14 This is now the third time that Jesus shewed himself to his
disciples, after that he was risen from the dead.

After this, Christ continued to appear to His disciples for forty
days from His resurrection.  He instructed His disciples
concerning why He had to die, pointing out scriptures to prove
that He would die and rise again.  He gave them their
commission to preach the gospel into the entire world for a
witness.  Then He left them returning to heaven with a
message to wait in Jerusalem for the giving of the holy spirit
on the Day of Pentecost.  
BULLINGER ON MARK 16:9-20
(Companion Bible appendix 168)
Those who retain questions concerning whether Mark 16:9-20
is spurious, may read appendix 168 in the Companion Bible, for
further information.  Bullinger gathered information in this
appendix showing that the oldest manuscripts do contain these
words – the exception comes with the two oldest Greek
manuscripts.  However, these two documents are not the
oldest copies in existence.  This is a detail one may overlook
when reading information from those who wish to eliminate
these twelve verses.  We will provide only one quote from
Bullinger’s appendix on this subject:
BULLINGER:

“There are nearly a hundred ecclesiastical writers older
than the oldest of our Greek codices; while between A.D.
300 and A.D. 600 there are about two hundred more, and
they all refer to these twelve verses.”
One cautionary comment about Bullinger’s writings: Bullinger
had his special doctrine concerning dispensations.  While God
has worked with people in various historical settings
differently, the doctrine of clear cut dispensational ages is not
biblical.  The bible does not speak of such ages; therefore, the
doctrine of biblical dispensations is subjective reasoning
created to answer questions.  Those questions usually have
answers when one has correct doctrine and perspective.
Is Mark 16 Spurious?
Part 2