I MAY EAT THE PASSOVER
Mat 26:17  Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto
him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee
to eat <5315> (5629) the Passover?
18 And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master saith, My time is at
hand;
I will keep <4160> (5719) the Passover at thy house with my disciples.

Mark 14:12  And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the Passover, his disciples said
unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that
thou mayest eat <5315> (5632) the Passover?
13 And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall
meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him.
14 And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is
the guestchamber, where
I shall eat<5315> (5632) (I may eat) the Passover with my disciples?

Luke 22:8 And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the Passover, that
we may eat
<5315> (5632).
9 And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare?
10 And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you,
bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in.
11 And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the
guestchamber, where
I shall eat <5315> (5632) (I may eat) the Passover with my disciples?

Of the above six highlighted phrases, the last four are the same verb and parsing.  Let us
study those four phrases first.  Only Matthew’s account is different.  We will look at
Matthew’s account a little later.

Below is the definition of the verb <to eat>.

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5315 fagw phago fag'-o

a primary verb (used as an alternate of 2068 in certain tenses); ;v

AV-eat 94, meat 3; 97

1) to eat
2) to eat (consume) a thing
2a) to take food,  eat a meal
2b) metaph. to devour,  consume
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The basic meaning of this word is "to eat."  You will notice that the parsing of the verb
"to eat" is #5632 all four cases.

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5632 Tense-Second Aorist      See 5780
Voice-Active                      See 5784
Mood -Subjunctive             See 5792
Count-449
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Now one comment before we proceed.  Sometimes it is necessary to use several English
words to get the sense for one word in the original Hebrew or Greek.  In each of the four
phrases from the Mark and Luke accounts, the one Greek word (5315) covers the
underscored words.  Just because Strong does not have a number for a word does not
mean that it is not included in the <sense> of the original word.

Let us observe how the KJV translates this word, in other places.  The words in angle
brackets < > are the words translated for the one word #5315.

Matt 6:25  <ye shall eat>
Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what <ye shall eat>, or what ye shall drink;
nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on.  Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment?

Luke 17:8  
<shalt eat>
And will not rather say unto him, Make ready wherewith I may sup, and gird thyself, and serve me,
till I have eaten and drunken; and afterward thou <shalt eat> and drink?

John 6:5  
<may eat>
When Jesus then lifted up his eyes, and saw a great company come unto him, he saith unto Philip,
Whence shall we buy bread, that these <may eat>?

John 18:28  
<they might eat>
Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves
went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that <they might eat> the Passover.

1 Cor 8:13  
<I will eat>
Wherefore, if meat make my brother to offend, <I will eat> no flesh while the world standeth, lest I
make my brother to offend.

Rev 19:18  
<ye may eat>
That <ye may eat> the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the
flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small
and great.

The Greek word and the verb parsing are constant in these several references taken
from the New Testament.  The word is a verb meaning: to eat.  We want to look at the
mood of the word more specifically.  The translators’ choice of words such as <will> and
<shall> were not intended to convey dogmatic intents, for the mood is subjunctive in the
Greek.  Let us look at the definition for this mood:

5792 Mood-Subjunctive

The subjunctive mood is the mood of possibility and potentiality.  The action described may or
may not occur, depending upon circumstances.  
Conditional sentences of the third class ("ean"
+ the subjunctive) are all of this type, as well as many commands following conditional purpose
clauses, such as those beginning with "hina."

Notice that the subjunctive mood is the mood of <possibility> and <potentiality>.  The
action described may or may not occur, depending on the circumstances.  It is obvious that
the circumstances did not allow the Messiah to eat the Passover that year!  

May, might or some other conditional word is correct for this word when in the
subjunctive mood.  As these verses use the subjunctive mood, they make no definite
statement that the Messiah was going to eat the Passover.  Moreover, as the subjunctive
mood is the mood of this word, the words <may> and <might> are within the makeup of
the word itself without having to be a separate word.  When one wants to express a
conditional sense, he uses the subjunctive mood in Greek.

Now the phrase
<to eat <5315> (5629)> in Matthew 26:17 is in the form of a question
from the disciples
and has no bearing on what actually happened!  Matthew chose to use
the infinitive mood, however it does not change anything from what Mark and Luke were
saying because it is in the form of a question.

This leaves the phrase
<I will keep <4160> (5719)> in Matthew 26:18.

How do we explain the phrase “I will keep the Passover at your house with my
disciples?”  The question that we have to ask ourselves – and answer – is, “What did The
Messiah have in His mind when He made this statement?”  Was he speaking of eating the
Passover lamb that would be slain on the afternoon of the 14th?  That would be
impossible.  He would be dead!  However, the word <Passover> (#3957) can refer to the
<meal>, the <day>, the
<festival>, the <sacrifice>, or the <lamb>.  

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Online Bible:
3957 pasca pascha pas'-khah

of Aramaic origin, cf 06453 xsp; TDNT - 5:896,797; n n

AV - Passover 28, Easter 1; 29

1) the paschal sacrifice (which was accustomed to be offered for the people's deliverance of old from
Egypt)
2) the paschal lamb, i.e. the lamb the Israelites were accustomed to slay and eat on the fourteenth day
of the month of Nisan (the first month of their year) in memory of the day on which their fathers,
preparing to depart from Egypt, were bidden by God to slay and eat a lamb, and to sprinkle their
door posts with its blood, that the destroying angel, seeing the blood, might pass over their dwellings;
Christ crucified is likened to the slain paschal lamb
3) the paschal supper
4) the paschal feast, the feast of the Passover, extending from the 14th to the 20th day of the month
Nisan
(NOTE:  the feast was from and including the 15th through the 21st – JR)

It is apparent that The Messiah was referring to the whole Season of Passover that
remained.  The Passover Season included 5 days of preparation (the 10th through the
14th), and 7 days of unleavened bread (the 15th through the 21st).  No one would think of
reserving a room for eating the Passover meal only and then returning home without
observing the rest of the Festival.

While the Christ would be dead for part of the days of the Festival, the disciples would
have needed a place for the entire time; and after The Messiah’s resurrection, He would
have needed a place to complete the Festival with the disciples.  Furthermore, as the meal
coming up would be eaten during the preparation portion of the Passover Season, He
would be eating and keeping the Passover Season with His disciples that very evening – in
the broad sense of the word.

Even two days before the Passover would find the city saturated with guests.  We can see
why the Messiah had to give specific information so the disciples could prepare.  
Jerusalem was getting very crowded already.

If we put Matthew and Luke’s accounts together, we get the following full statement:

Moreover, he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master says, My time is at
hand; I will keep the Passover at thy house with my disciples.  Where is the guest chamber, where I
might eat the Passover with my disciples?

If this was the full statement, then Matthew gives us part of it and Luke gives us the rest
of it.  It is obvious that both statements cannot be the same for one is in the subjunctive
mood and the other is in the indicative mood.  When one chooses different moods, he has
to put them into different phrases.  Either these two statements are different phrases –
with different intents – or we must give the writer license to put the statement in his
words, rather than in the Messiah’s actual words.  If one does not create a contradiction
that is acceptable – however when a contradiction occurs we must find another solution.

Matthew's statement is broader and supports the indicative mood, while Luke’s
statement is narrower and in the subjunctive mood.  The two statements do not contradict
one another.  Matthew is referring to the entire Passover Season, and Luke is referring
to the evening when they would eat the Passover.  By using the subjunctive mood, Luke
does not lock the Messiah into eating the Passover.  By using the broader definition in
Matthew, eating the Passover is not required!  They both allow for what actually
happened that year.
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