After Judas Had Gone Out
John 13.31-38 (NKJV), So, when he had gone out, Jesus said, "Now the Son of Man is glorified, and
God is glorified in Him.  If God is glorified in Him, God will also glorify Him in Himself, and
glorify Him immediately.  Little Children, I shall be with you a little while longer.  You will seek me;
and as I said to the Jews, 'Where I am going, you cannot come,' so now I say to you.  A new
commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one
another.  By this all will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another."  Simon
Peter said to Him, "Lord, where are You going?"  Jesus answered him, "Where I am going you cannot
follow Me now, but you shall follow Me afterward."  Peter said to Him, "Lord, why can I not follow
You now?  I will lay down my life for Your sake."  Jesus answered him, "Will you lay down your life
for My sake?  Most assuredly, I say to you, the rooster shall not crow till you have denied Me three
times."

Matthew 26.31-35 (NKJV), Then Jesus said to them, "All of you will be made to stumble because of
Me this night, for it is written:  'I will strike the Shepherd, And the sheep of the flock will be
scattered.'  But after I have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee."  Peter answered and said to
Him, "Even if all are made to stumble because of You, I will never be made to stumble."  Jesus said to
him, "Assuredly, I say to you that this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times."  
Peter said to Him, "Even if I have to die with You, I will not deny You!"  And so said all the disciples.

Mark 14.27-31 (NKJV), Then Jesus said to them, "All of you will be made to stumble because of Me
this night, for it is written:  'I will strike the Shepherd, And the sheep will be scattered.'  But after I
have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee."  But Peter said to Him, "Even if all are made to
stumble, yet I will not be."  And Jesus said to him, "Assuredly, I say to you that today, even this night,
before the rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three times."  But he spoke more vehemently, "If I
have to die with You, I will not deny You!"  And they all said likewise.

Luke 22.31-34 (NKJV), And the Lord said, "Simon, Simon!  Indeed, Satan has asked for you, that he
may sift you as wheat.  But I have prayed for you, that your faith should not fail; and when you have
returned to Me, strengthen your brethren."  But he said to Him, "Lord, I am ready to go with You,
both to prison and to death."  Then He said, "I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow this day
before you will deny three times that you know Me."

The above conversation took place after Judas had gone out.

Luke 22.17-20 (NKJV), Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, "Take this and divide it
among yourselves; for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God
comes."  And He took
bread (a;rtoj), gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, "This is
My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me."  Likewise He also took the cup after
supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you.

Matthew 26:26-29 (NKJV), And as they were eating, Jesus took
bread (a;rtoj), blessed it and broke it,
and gave it to the disciples and said, "Take, eat; this is My body."  Then He took the cup, and gave
thanks, and gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you.  For this is My blood of the new
covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.  But I say to you, I will not drink of this
fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom."

Mark 14:22-25 (NKJV), And as they were eating, Jesus took
bread (a;rtoj) blessed it and broke it, and
gave it to them and said, "Take eat; this is My body."  Then He took the cup, and when He had given
thanks He gave it to them, and they all drank from it.  And He said to them, "This is My blood of the
new covenant, which is shed for many.  Assuredly, I say to you, I will no longer drink of the fruit of
the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God."

I Corinthians 11:23-26 (NKJV), For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you:  that
the Lord Jesus on the same night in which He was betrayed took
bread; (a;rtoj) and when He had
given thanks, He broke it and said, "Take, eat; this is My body which is broken for you; do this in
remembrance of Me."  In the same manner He also took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the
new covenant in My blood.  This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me."  For as often as
you eat this
bread (a;rtoj) and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death till He comes.

We have these four accounts of the bread and wine.  John does not mention the bread and
wine, but he gives the foot washing ceremony, which the others do not give.  However, we
do have Paul’s account as a fourth witness.  It is interesting that in these 5 uses of the
word
bread, the writers utilize the word "artos" (Strong’s #740) the Greek: a;rtoj.  
"Artos" is the transliteration for the generic Greek noun for bread: a;rtoj.  While it can
refer to unleavened bread, in a general way, as in Luke 24.30, it is unlikely that Jewish
writers such as Matthew and Mark would have used it in reference to the bread eaten at
the Passover Feast itself.  We cannot know whether the bread eaten was leavened or
unleavened when the writer uses only the word <artos> unless the context reveals the
answer.  We know that the bread mentioned in Luke 24:30 was unleavened bread for,
according to the context of the occasion, it was still the days of unleavened bread.  Luke,
being Greek, was more likely to use a general term for bread instead of the specific term
for unleavened bread: avzu,mwn.

Luke 24:30 And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread  (a;rtoj) and blessed [it],
and brake, and gave to them.

Furthermore, Paul, with his Pharisaic background and education in the law would be
highly unlikely to use the word "artos" when referring to unleavened bread for the
Passover Feast.  Luke, being a Greek writer would be more likely to use "artos," as
bread, in a general way, in reference to unleavened bread, whereas a Jewish writer would
have probably used the adjective avzu,mwn (azumos) especially for bread eaten on The
Passover Feast Night.  "Azumos" is the transliteration for the Greek avzu,mwn and the
writers never use it in any of the Scriptures referring to the bread of the Last Supper.  
The fact that the biblical writers use "artos" for the term "bread" at the Last Supper is
just another clue that this was not the Passover Feast as we have proven so often before.  
However, this is not to say that they could not have used unleavened bread for the Lord’s
Supper – the bread and the wine.  We will look at further evidence, concerning that issue,
later.

After this Christ gives a farewell discourse in John 14.1-31, after which the following
seems to be the order of events.

Luke 22:35-38 (NKJV) And He said to them, "When I sent you without money bag, sack, and sandals,
did you lack anything?"  So they said, "Nothing."  Then He said to them, "But now,
he who has a
money bag, let him take it, and likewise a sack; and he who has no sword, let him sell his garment
and buy one.
 For I say to you that this which is written must still be accomplished in Me:  'And He
was numbered with the transgressors.'  For the things concerning Me have an end."  Then they said,
"Lord look, here are two swords."  And He said to them.  "It is enough."

John l4.31 (NKJV), "...Arise, let us go from here."

Notice again that Christ is speaking of making purchases that evening, further indicating
that it was a night when business transactions could continue.  

Whether they actually left the upper room at this point, we do not know.  They could have
gotten up, as if they were going out, and then resumed their conversation – as often
happens when one is with close friends.  A.T. Robertson whose Harmony of the Gospels I
am mainly following with a few minor changes says, that the discourse of John 15 and 16
was possibly on the street and on the way to Gethsemane.  Perhaps there is no way to tell,
but the first discourse was seemingly broken with the above statements and another
discussion followed.  Christ's prayer comes in John 17, Robertson says, possibly near
Gethsemane; but, of course, this is speculation.  

Matthew 26.30, 36-46 (NKJV), And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of
Olives.  Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane, and said to the disciples, "Sit here
while I go and pray over there."  And He took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and He
began to be sorrowful and deeply distressed.  Then He said to them, "My soul is exceedingly
sorrowful, even to death.  Stay here and watch with Me."  He went a little farther and fell on His face,
and prayed, saying, "O My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I
will, but as You will."  Then He came to the disciples and found them asleep, and said to Peter,
"What, could you not watch with Me one hour?  Watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation.  The
spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak."  He went away again a second time and prayed,
saying, "O My Father, if this cup cannot pass away from Me unless I drink it, Your will be done."  
And He came and found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy.  So He left them, went away
again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words.  Then He came to His disciples and said to
them, "Are you still sleeping and resting?  Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man is being
betrayed into the hands of sinners.  Rise, let us be going.  See, he who betrays Me is at hand."

Mark 14.26, 32-42 (NKJV), And
when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.  
Then they came to a place which was named Gethsemane; and He said to His disciples, "Sit here
while I pray."  And He took Peter, James, and John with Him, and He began to be troubled and
deeply distressed.  Then He said to them, "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death.  Stay here
and watch."  He went a little farther, and fell on the ground, and prayed that if it were possible, the
hour might pass from Him.  And He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible for You.  Take this
cup away from Me; nevertheless, not what I will, but what You will."  Then He came and found them
sleeping, and said to Peter, "Simon, are you sleeping?  Could you not watch one hour?  Watch and
pray, lest you enter into temptation.  The spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is weak."  Again He went
away and prayed, and spoke the same words.  And when He returned, He found them asleep again, for
their eyes were heavy; and they did not know what to answer Him.  Then He came the third time and
said to them, "Are you still sleeping and resting?  It is enough!  The hour has come; behold, the Son
of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners.  Rise up, let us go.  See, My betrayer is at hand."

Luke 22.39-46 (NKJV), And coming out, He went to the Mount of Olives, as He was accustomed, and
His disciples also followed Him.  When He came to the place, He said to them, "Pray that you may
not enter into temptation."  And He was withdrawn from them about a stone's throw, and He knelt
down and prayed, saying, "Father, if it is Your will, remove this cup from Me; nevertheless not My
will, but Yours, be done."  Then an angel appeared to Him from heaven, strengthening Him.  And
being in agony, He prayed more earnestly.  And His sweat became like great drops of blood falling
down to the ground.  When He rose up from prayer, and had come to His disciples, He found them
sleeping from sorrow.  Then He said to them, "Why do you sleep?  Rise and pray, lest you enter into
temptation."

John 18.1 (NKJV), When Jesus had spoken these words, He went out with His disciples over the Brook
Kidron, where there was a garden, which He and His disciples entered.

They sung a hymn, perhaps in a garden before they went out into the Mount of Olives.  It
does not seem that it was a part of a formal event, but perhaps a spontaneous thing, which
they did.  

This ends our discussion about the Last Supper of the 13th and how it relates to the
Passover Feast.  However, we will comment on the rest of the verses where the word
Passover appears and discuss other related subjects at the end of this section.

John 18.28 (NKJV), "Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the Praetorium, and it was early
morning.  But they themselves did not go into the Praetorium, lest they should be defiled, but that they
might eat the Passover."  See John 11.55.

The Jews were careful to keep themselves ceremonially clean so they could eat the
Passover.

John 18.39 (NKJV), "But you have a custom that I should release someone to you at the Passover...."

Each year, sometime during the Passover Festival, the Roman procurator of Judea
released a criminal to the Jews.  It apparently was a tradition of past Roman procurators.  
In addition, it indicates that this may have been the first Passover Season for Pilate as
procurator of Judea.  As Pilate was in need of an "honorable" way to settle this matter
concerning Christ, and as the Passover Season had already begun, he made the offer to
free Christ as the one traditionally released at Passover.

John 19.14 (NKJV), "Now it was the Preparation Day (not in original) of the Passover, and about the
sixth hour.  And he said to the Jews, 'Behold your King!'"

This was during the preparation of the Passover, sometime between the 10th and the 14th
of Nisan.  As we have seen in this study, it was on the 13th.  The next afternoon they
would be slaying the lambs at the temple, and Christ would die for the sins of the whole
world, as our Passover crucified for us in the afternoon of the 14th toward the evening,
just as it had always been done.

Acts 12.4 (NKJV), "So when he had apprehended him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four
squads of soldiers to keep him, intending to bring him before the people after Passover.

Herod had imprisoned Peter and was holding him until after the 21st of Nisan or until the
Passover Season was over as verse 3 indicates, "...Now it was during the Days of
Unleavened Bread." when he seized Peter.  Here again the bible refers to the whole
season as Passover.

I Corinthians 5.7-8 (NKJV), "Therefore purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, since
you truly are unleavened.  For indeed
Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us.  Therefore let us
keep the feast,
not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the
unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

Christ, <our Passover> was sacrificed for us.  Therefore, let us keep the feast of the
Passover on the 15th with its more meaningful symbols for us as believers.  The Israelites
ate bitter herbs as a reminder of past bondage.  We wash each other's feet, a symbol of
humility, and the only true path to our freedom.  The Israelites slew and ate a lamb to
remind them of their Passover.  We eat the bread and drink the wine to remind us of our
Passover, the true Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world.

Hebrews 11.28 (NKJV), "By faith he (Moses) kept the Passover and the sprinkling of blood, lest he
who destroyed the firstborn should touch them."

What a fitting ending for our subject of Passover!  With Moses is where the Bible began
on this subject, and with Moses is where the Bible uses the word Passover for the last
time.  Moses kept the first Passover by faith.  Now that we have seen the truth about
Passover, we too can keep it by faith.  We should now know beyond a shadow of doubt
that Christ our Passover was slain on the afternoon of the 14th of Nisan.  Moreover, that
He expects us to keep the Feast of Passover on that night to be much observed of the
15th, which was ordained
forever, so many long years ago!
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