Argument #1
Deuteronomy 16 is irreconcilable for the early 14th Passover advocates.  However,
Deuteronomy 16 is <not> necessary to prove a 14th/15th Passover/Passover Feast.  When
properly understood, there are no contradictions in Deuteronomy 16 for the 14th/15th
supporter, and this chapter includes instructions for both Passover and Unleavened
Bread.  In fact, when totally understood, Deuteronomy 16 includes further instructions
given to Moses for observing the Passover and Unleavened Bread after he set up the
Tabernacle.  Rather than being the "odd man out", as some early 14th Passover
advocates prefer to call Deuteronomy 16, it makes the scriptures fuller with meaning and
understanding for both Passover and Unleavened Bread.

Deuteronomy 16:2 Thou shalt therefore sacrifice <02076> the Passover unto the LORD thy God, of
the flock and the herd, in the place, which the LORD shall choose to place his name there.

In Deuteronomy 16:2, the word <Passover> can refer to the entire 7-day celebration or
simply to the lambs and goats slain “between the evenings” on the 14th of Nisan.  
Therefore, the sacrifices mentioned, include the lambs (of the flock or the goats of the
herd) for the Passover Feast, and could include the sacrifices for the rest of the Days of
Unleavened Bread that immediately followed (of the flock and of the herd).  Goats were
slain for Passover and they were of the herd.  Therefore, those who would use the word
herd to prove this was not Passover are being deceptive.  The word for sacrifice includes
animals slaughtered for sacrifice or for eating.  Therefore, the word KJV translation of
<sacrifice> is no solace for the early 14th Passover advocates who suggest that the
Passover lambs were not sacrifices – and that the scripture is in error here.

Exodus 12:5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take [it] out from
the sheep, or from the goats:
6 And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the
congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.

02076 xbz zabach zaw-bakh’

a primitive root; TWOT-525; v

AV-sacrifice 85, offer 39, kill 5, slay 5; 134

1) to slaughter, kill, sacrifice, slaughter for sacrifice
1a) (Qal)
1a1) to slaughter for sacrifice
1a2) to slaughter for eating
1a3) to slaughter in divine judgment
1b) (Piel) to sacrifice, offer sacrifice
Argument #2
The word used in Deuteronomy 16:7 for roast <01310> (8765) is a general verb.  Although
the KJV translates it mainly as boil, seethe, and sod, they did translate it as roast in
2Chronicles 35:13, as well as in Deuteronomy.  However, the reason for the heavy usage
of words other than roast is that the context of most scriptures refers to sacrifices that
required these various terms for cooking.  

The Hebrew term in 2Chronicles 35:13 is Piel Imperfect while the term in Deuteronomy
16:7 is Piel Perfect.  Observe that 2Chronicles is past tense while Deuteronomy is future
tense.  However, the word for cook <01310> is the same in both.  The context determines
how to cook and we know that the Passover was roasted and the KJV translators chose
the proper word in each of these scriptures.

2Ch 35:13 And they roasted <01310> (8762) WlV.b;y>w: (and they roasted) the Passover with fire
according to the ordinance: but the <other> holy offerings sod they in pots, and in caldrons, and in
pans, and divided them speedily among all the people.

Deuteronomy 16:7 And thou shalt roast <01310> (8765) T'l.V;biW (and you shall roast) and eat it in
the place which the LORD thy God shall choose: and thou shalt turn in the morning, and go unto thy

The context of 2Chronicles 35:13 is clear.  The writer contrasts Passover with the
<other> offering and how they were cooked.  The truth of the matter is that the word can
be properly translated as <to roast>.  The word is a general term for cooking as one can
see by the many different ways the KJV translates it.  

Below are the details.  Observe that the word’s usage can include the English term
<roast>.  Under the Piel category, the terms are <to boil> or <to cook> roasting is one
way to cook.

Check out the Online Bible definitions from Strong’s Concordance for #1310 below:

01310 bashal {baw-shal'}

a primitive root; TWOT - 292; v

AV - seethe 10, boil 6, sod 6, bake 2, ripe 2, roast 2; 28

1) to boil, cook, bake, roast, ripen, grow ripe
1a) (Qal)
1a1) to boil, cook
1a2) to grow ripe, ripen

1b) (Piel)
1b1) to boil
1b2) to cook

1c) (Pual)
1c1) to be boiled
1c2) to be sodden

1d) (Hiphil)
1d1) to ripen
1d2) ripen, brought to ripeness
08765 Stem  - Piel               
Mood  - Perfect            
Count - 2121
08762 Stem  - Piel               
Mood  - Imperfect          
Count - 2447
Argument #3
The last half of Deuteronomy 16:4 is a plain reference to the Passover lamb (Exodus 34:
25).  The flesh, of the sacrifice eaten the first day of Unleavened Bread (15th Nisan), was
not to remain until the morning.  The bible gives the instructions for disposing of the
remains of the Passover lambs in Moses’ other writings (Exodus 12:10, 34:25).  The
Passover lamb was the only sacrifice that the Israelites had to burn its remains before
daylight of the morning following its slaughter.  As it was not to remain until the morning,
and it was the sacrifice toward evening, toward the first day, we know that Deuteronomy
16:4 refers to the Passover sacrifice.  Deuteronomy 16:4 singles out the Passover
sacrifice and pinpoints the time that the Israelites ate it.  

The most amazing fact of this verse is that it ties the Passover Feast with the first of the
7 days of Unleavened Bread in the Hebrew.  The Israelites had to eliminate all leavened
bread from their nation for seven days: and they were not to let the flesh of the sacrifice
– made <toward> evening, <toward> the first day – remain all night until the morning.  
There is no question that this verse confirms that the Israelites ate the Passover, at the
beginning of the 15th of Nisan, the first Holyday of Unleavened Bread.

Exodus 12:10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it
until the morning ye shall burn with fire.

Exodus 34:25 Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven; neither shall the sacrifice of
the feast of the Passover be left unto the morning.

Deuteronomy 16:4, And there shall be no leavened bread seen with thee in all thy coast seven days;
neither shall there any thing of the flesh, which thou sacrificedst the first day at even, remain all night
until the morning.

`rq,Bol; !AvarIh' ~AYB; br,[,B' xB;z>T rv,a] rf'B'h;-!mi !yliy"-al{w>

The line of Hebrew displayed above, is the last half of Deuteronomy 16:4.  A correct
translation is:
“and do not lodge (anything) from the flesh which you slaughtered toward the
evening, toward the first day (of unleavened bread), to (unto) the morning.  
We added the
parenthetical terms to help make the sense in English.  The reader can see the intent of
the Hebrew even without these added terms.  The implication is clear that the Israelites
ate the Passover in the beginning of the first day of Unleavened Bread.

The KJV and other translations switch the order of <at evening> and <at day> and
eliminate one of the Hebrew prepositions to make their sense in the English.  This
translation creates a contradiction, as it makes the 14th of Nisan the first day of
unleavened bread.  The two Hebrew terms for <toward the first day – actually: toward
day, the first> do not mean a day before the seven days, but the first of the seven days.

Young’s Literal Translation gets the order right and translates both prepositions <
on the first day>.  However, this translation creates a contradiction.  The context
of Deuteronomy 16:4 begins with seven days of unleavened bread.  The Israelites were
not to allow the Passover flesh to remain until the morning of the first of these seven days
of unleavened bread!  By deduction, YLT indicates that the Passover was slain on the
15th of Nisan.  We all agree that the Israelites slaughtered the Passover on the 14th of
Nisan.  To convey the truth and eliminate a contradiction we should translate the Hebrew
as, <toward evening, toward the first day>.  This is an allowable translation and does not
create a contradiction.

Deuteronomy 16:4 and there is not seen with thee leaven in all thy border seven days, and there doth
not remain of the flesh which thou dost sacrifice at evening on the first day till morning.

Some early 14th Passover advocates argue that because Deuteronomy 16:4 does not
mention burning the slaughtered remains that this cannot refer to the Passover.  Why lose
sight of the principle “here a little and there a little” when it comes to this verse of
scripture.  Moses had given full instructions for how to dispose of the Passover remains
elsewhere.  He did not need to go through all of those instructions again in order to get his
point across.  What other sacrifice was slain toward the evening, toward the first day of
unleavened bread unless it was the Passover lamb?  Are we to assume that because
nothing is mentioned of <burning> the sacrifice, here in Numbers, it is not the Passover?  
Verses 5-7 establish that the subject is Passover:

Deuteronomy 16:5 Thou mayest not sacrifice the Passover within any of thy gates, which the LORD
thy God giveth thee:
6 But at the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to place his name in, there thou shalt
sacrifice the Passover at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out
of Egypt.
7 And thou shalt roast and eat it in the place which the LORD thy God shall choose: and thou shalt
turn in the morning, and go unto thy tents.

The bible uses similar terminology in Numbers 9:11-12:

Numbers 9:11 The fourteenth day of the second month at even (between the two evenings) they shall
keep it, and eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.
12 They shall leave none of it unto the morning, nor break any bone of it: according to all the
ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it.
Argument #4
1  Observe the <month> of Abib, and keep the Passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of
Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.

In Deuteronomy 16, the text uses the word Passover generally to refer to the entire Feast
of Unleavened Bread, and sometimes as the context shows, it refers to the Feast of
Passover specifically.  In order to understand Deuteronomy 16, it is good to read the
Scriptures with this in mind.  In verse 1, the word <Passover> indicates the entire 7-day
festival.  The reason for celebrating both Passover and Unleavened Bread is that God
brought the Israelites out of Egypt.  Had God not brought them out of Egypt, there would
be no observance of the entire festival.  The <observation>, as noted at the very
beginning of Deuteronomy 16, is of the <month> of Abib.  The observance of the entire
month, in connection with the days involved, is the subject of this chapter from verses
1-8.  Keep in mind that the Israelites observed both the Passover and Unleavened Bread
in the month of Abib.  Therefore, it is obvious that Deuteronomy includes both Passover
and Unleavened Bread, in this chapter.  Some early 14th Passover advocates argue that
Deuteronomy 16 is about the days of Unleavened Bread without any reference to
Passover!  The information in this chapter is so damaging to the early 14th Passover
theory that they must destroy any reference to the Passover from verses 1-8.

The only time that the Israelites killed the Passover lambs away from the door of the
tabernacle or temple was in Egypt.  Moreover, remember, there was no tabernacle or
temple at that time!  When correctly understood, Deuteronomy 16 expands upon the
original instructions concerning the sacrifice of the Passover lamb after Moses put the
tabernacle in place, for service to God.  As we will see later, the scriptures of
Deuteronomy 16 refer specifically to the first Passover the Israelites kept after coming
out of Egypt.

The information in Numbers 9:13 makes it plain that the Israelites did not slaughter the
Passover lambs just anywhere.  The Israelites had to <bring> the Passover lambs to the
tabernacle originally, and to the temple later.  Moses gave these instructions about
Passover just before rearing the tabernacle.  One can easily make the connection that the
Israelites were to take the Passover lambs to the tabernacle just as soon as the
tabernacle was available, for that service.  Otherwise, <where> was the Israelite required
to take the Passover, as instructed in Numbers 9:13?

Numbers 9:11 The fourteenth day of the second month at even (between the two evenings) they shall
keep it, and eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.
12 They shall leave none of it unto the morning, nor break any bone of it: according to all the
ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it.
13 But the man that is clean, and is not in a journey, and forbeareth to keep the Passover, even the
same soul shall be cut off from among his people: because he <brought> not the offering of the LORD
in his appointed season, that man shall bear his sin.

Numbers 9:15  And on the day that the tabernacle was reared up the cloud covered the tabernacle,
namely, the tent of the testimony: and at even there was upon the tabernacle as it were the appearance
of fire, until the morning.

It is obvious that if one lived in Dan and went to Jerusalem to keep the Feast of UB it
would be impossible to keep Passover in Dan and UB in Jerusalem.  Therefore, the
Passover was part of the first annual <pilgrimage> feast, if one lived any distance outside
Jerusalem.  As God required every male to go to Jerusalem (the place where God had
placed His name) for the three festival seasons, it is obvious that the Israelites kept the
Passover at the pilgrimage festival of Unleavened Bread in Jerusalem.  Moreover, all
Israelites had to present their Passover lambs at the temple where they killed them and
the priests dashed their blood against the altar.

Deuteronomy 16:16 Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the LORD thy God in the
place which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the
feast of tabernacles: and they shall not appear before the LORD empty:

2 Chronicles 35:11 And they killed the Passover, and the priests sprinkled [the blood] from their
hands, and the Levites flayed (skinned) [them].

2 Chronicles 30:16 They stood in their place according to their custom, according to the Law of
Moses the man of God; the priests sprinkled the blood [received] from the hand of the Levites.
17 For [there were] many in the assembly who had not sanctified themselves; therefore the Levites
had charge of the slaughter of the Passover [lambs] for everyone [who was] not clean, to sanctify
[them] to the LORD.
Argument #5
The KJV uses the word <Abib> in 4 verses, for a total of 6 times translated as <Abib>.  
We have inserted these references below.  The first time the bible mentions Abib it
describes the time of the Israelites' departure from Egypt.  The second time, the feast of
Unleavened Bread is the topic.  When one understands that Passover is the very
beginning of Unleavened Bread one understands that the bible does mention Passover in
the verse indirectly.  The third time, is the same as the second.  The fourth time, the bible
mentions the <Passover> in connection with the festival of Unleavened Bread.  In every
case, the word <month> is mentioned.  All of these verses are referring to observances in
the <month> of Abib.  Some early 14th Passover advocates claim that because the bible
does not mention the month of Abib in connection with Passover directly until
Deuteronomy 16 that someone tampered with the scriptures!  This is a very slim
argument and without any reason that would prove an early 14th Passover.

Ex 13:4 This day came ye out in the <month> Abib.

Ex 23:15 Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days,
as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the <month> Abib; for in it thou camest out from
Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)

Ex 34:18 The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep.  Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread,
as I commanded thee, in the time of the <month> Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from

De 16:1 <Observe the month> of Abib, and keep the Passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the
month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.

At this point, we want to show that God brought Israel out by night when they left Egypt
through the Red Sea!  Read this section of Scriptures and see comments below.

Exodus 14:19 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind
them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:
20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and
darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the
21  And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a
strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were
a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's
horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.
24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians
through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians,
25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us
flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.
26 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come
again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.
27And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the
morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the
midst of the sea.

They entered into the sea that night and when Moses stretched forth his hand over the
sea, it returned to its strength
<when the morning appeared>.

This could be what Deuteronomy 16:1 is speaking about when it says that God brought
Israel out of Egypt by night – unless a figure of speech is correct for the word <brought>.  
The Israelites were still in the land of Egypt until they crossed the Red Sea.  If this were
not true, Pharaoh would have had to get permission from other foreign powers to cross
their land, in his chase after the Israelites up to the border of the Red Sea.  Notice that
Deuteronomy is speaking of observing the <MONTH> of Abib.  God brought the
Israelites out of Egypt <by night> when they crossed the Red Sea and left Egypt behind.

Unquestionably, there are no contradictions in Deuteronomy 16.  Some early 14th
Passover advocates  - in order to eliminate the most damaging evidence against their
theory – demand that Ezra edited error into Deuteronomy 16.  It <may> be true that Ezra
edited some of the scriptures in this chapter.  However, to say that he edited them to a
degree that we cannot understand the original meaning of these scriptures or that his
editing created contradictions to other Scriptures is beyond our acceptance.  However,
even if one could prove this theory, and we eliminate Deuteronomy 16 from our argument,
there are sufficient scriptures left to <prove> that the Passover was at the end of the
14th and the Passover Feast was at beginning of the 15th.  

Some early 14th Passover advocates suggest that the Jews killed domestic Passovers
while in the Babylonian captivity – an argument they need to prove their theory.  There is
no record in the bible that the Jews kept Passover while in captivity.  Furthermore, as it
was lawful to kill the Passover according to the Law of God, we can safely assume that
the Jews did not slay the Passover while in exile.  The modern Seder probably has its
origins in the Babylonian captivity.  In any case, the Jews would not have kept the
Passover on the 14th while in exile, because it was <mandatory> that they sacrifice the
lambs at the temple and that according to the <Law of Moses>.

2Ch 30.15 Then they killed the Passover on the fourteenth day of the second month: and the priests
and the Levites were ashamed, and sanctified themselves, and brought in the burnt offerings into the
house of the LORD.
16 And they stood in their place after their manner, <according to the law of Moses> the man of God:
the priests sprinkled the blood, which they received of the hand of the Levites.
17 For there were many in the congregation that were not sanctified: therefore the Levites had the
charge of the killing of the Passovers for every one that was not clean, to sanctify them unto the

Notice that the Levites killed the Passover lambs and they sprinkled the blood <according
to the Law of Moses>.

The bible includes Passover in Deuteronomy 16 for the following reasons.

1) Deuteronomy 16:1 says to observe the <month> of Abib.  This would have included

2) Verse 4 indicates the Passover sacrifice specifically, for it was the sacrifice that was
slain at the evening of the first day and not to be left until the morning.

3) Verse 6 specifically mentions the Passover sacrifice that the Israelites were to
slaughter at (toward) the <going down> of the sun.

Some early 14th Passover advocates claim that the usage of the word Passover for the
entire season of Unleavened Bread is a tradition of men and that this proves that someone
has tampered with the first 8 verses of Deuteronomy 16.  However, as the Bible uses the
term <Passover> for the whole festival – Passover and Unleavened Bread included, it is
not a tradition of men, but the word of God.  Later we will go into the broad usage of the
word Passover in detail.